AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN CROATIA Vladimira Vadjić Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c. 2, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia e-mail: email@example.com
Monitoring of air quality in urban and industrial areas in Croatia has started in Zagreb during the 60s and it was organised by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health and regional authority. Since the early seventies air pollution monitoring has been gradually introduced in other Croatian towns by regional Institutes of Public Health together with the regional authorities.
All regional monitoring networks use the same methodology for air quality monitoring and are connected in one common network. This network has plenty of manually operated stations and only a few automatic stations. Reorganization and harmonization of the regional network is provided step by step. Automatic equipment will be gradually introduced to replace the manually operated one.
The first automatic monitoring station in State monitoring network was established in Zagreb in 2003. In accordance with the Ordinance on locations of permanent air monitoring stations in the national network from 2002, 22 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of air pollution are expected to be installed in the State monitoring network till the end of 2007. Today, eight monitoring stations are working. The stations will be located in towns, industrial areas, national parks and islands.
There are also some local monitoring stations in Croatia for monitoring specific air pollutants in industrial areas, gas fields and near waste dumps. Global indicators of air quality in Croatia are monitored by Meteorological and Hydrological Service.
During 2006 the surveillance of air quality was provided in 34 Croatian towns. This paper describes an ongoing air quality surveillance with the categorization of areas in regional network with respect to the results of sulphur dioxide, smoke, total suspended particulate matter, metals lead, cadmium and manganese in total suspended particulate matter, PM10, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measurements in seven the largest Croatian towns. The results refer to the entire monitoring period in each town where the surveillance was performed. This paper also describes trends of annual mean values and 98th percentiles of the air pollutants in Zagreb area.
Air quality was assessed by comparing annual means with recommended (RV) and limit (LV) values stipulated by the Law on Air Quality Protection in Croatia and the Ordinance on Recommended and Limit Air Quality Values. The Law on Air Quality Protection in Croatia gives three categories of air quality: 1st category - clean air (the concentration levels of air pollution are below RV) 2nd category - moderately polluted air (the concentration levels of air pollution are over RV and below LV) 3rd category - polluted air (the concentration levels of air pollution are over LV).
Following the European Council Directives the 2005 Ordinance on Limit Values of Pollutants in the Air gives limit values (LV) and the margine of tolerance (TV), that is the percentage of the limit value by which this value may be exceeded. The New Law on Air Protection gives also three categories of air quality: 1st category - clean or insignificantly polluted air (measured concentrations of one or more pollutants are lower than LV) 2nd category - moderately polluted air (measured concentrations one or more pollutants are higher than LV and lower than TV) 3rd category - over polluted air (measured concentrations one or more pollutants are higher than TV)
Air quality in Croatia is presently within tolerable limits for SO2 and smoke. It used to be rather poor in Zagreb and Rijeka in the 60s and 70s, and it improved in the 80s, primarily because coal was replaced by gas and liquid fuel and because district heating was introduced in densely populated districts. Further reduction of air pollution was observed in Zagreb and Rijeka recently, which may be attributed to the reduced industrial activity as a consequence of Serbian aggression in Croatia in the 90s.
Levels of Pb and Cd in TSP and ozone in Zagreb and Rijeka and Mn in TSP in Zagreb and NO2 in Pula, Sisak and Split were within tolerable limits for the whole period of surveillance.
Concentrations of TSP in Zagreb were of the 3rd category in the 70s. From 1989 the TSP concentrations shifted to the 2nd category while NO2, PM10 and BaP concentrations remained of the 2nd category from the beginning of measurements in Zagreb and Rijeka. Concentrations of TSP in Rijeka were, with some variations, of the 2nd category.
With respect to SO2 , smoke, metals Pb, Cd, and Mn in TSP, and ozone, air quality in Croatia is presently of the 1st category (clean air) and with respect to TSP, PM10, NO2 and BaP it is of the 2nd category (moderately polluted air).
According to European standards measurements of PM10 particles have started instead of measuring TSP in 2006. The measurements of arsenic and nickel in PM10 particles have started since 2007.