Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Air Quality Monitoring and Management in Kathmandu, Nepal Presented By Chiranjibi Gautam Urban Env. & AQM Advisor Environment Sector Program Support (A HMG/DANIDA Program) Ministry of Population and Environment Co-Authors Suman Sharma, Project Manager, ESPS/MOPE Karsten Fuglsang, AQM Expert, Force Technology, Denmark BAQ 2004, Agra, India 6-8 December, 2004
Kathmandu Valley: General Background • Approximately 1.8 million population • About 1300 meter above sea level • A valley surrounded by 500 to 1000 m high mountains • November to June:- generally dry • Lowest temperature: around 0oC in Jan/Feb • July to October:- rains frequently • Wind speed is generally calm
Kathmandu Valley: Air Quality Monitoring • Campaign monitoring during 90ies • Campaign monitoring during 2000-2001 for design of permanent air quality monitoring system • Permanent air quality monitoring system established in late 2002 • Monitoring of meteorological parameters- part of the air quality monitoring system
Kathmandu AQMM: Institutions Involved • Ministry of Population and Environment • Muncipalities (five) in Kathmandu Valley • Department of Transport Management • Kathmandu Valley Traffic Police • Department of Hydrology and Meteorology • Nepal Bureau of Standards and Metrology • Royal Nepal Academy of Science & Technology • Private laboratories: • Soil Test • ENPHO • NESS
Kath AQMM: Focus on PM10 • Designed according to EN12341 • Sustainable pump system: • Manual shift of filters • 24 V battery backup for use during power cut • Can be swithed to PM2.5 • can be programmed for 6 hrs interval Passive Samplers for NO2, SO2, and Benzene PM2.5 PM10
Kath AQMM: Vehicle Emission Control Import of only EURO-I vehicles Phased out of diesel 3-wheelers, 2-stroke 3-wheelers, and 20 year old taxies Incremental tax on old vehicles (15 years and older) Fiscal incentives to electrical vehicles Road development and maintenance fund (fuel tax) and additional customs on import of vehicles for urban road maintenance
Kath AQMM: Vehicle Emission Control • Institutions involved in vehicle emission testing and monitoring strengthened • All vehicles required to have green stickers to ply in Kathmandu Valley • On road monitoring of black smoky vehicles • Training to auto-mechanics for proper repair and maintenance of vehicles • Private auto-workshops to be involved in vehicle emission testing • Govt. institutions to concentrate on on-road monitoring
Kath AQMM: Industrial Emission Control • Ban on new registration of highly polluting brick kiln technology (Bulls Trench kilns). • BTK to be changed either to Fixed Chimney or VSVK by September 2004 • Energy Efficiency program in industrial boilers and brick kilns started in 2001
Kath AQMM: Awareness Creation Regular publication of results Radio jingles, TV spots, Hoarding boards Awareness trainings
Kath AQM: Positive Results Roadside: avg of 2 stations Residential: avg of 3 stations