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Social Stratification: Sex & Gender - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Social Stratification: Sex & Gender

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  1. Social Stratification: Sex & Gender

  2. Part ONE: Components of Sexual Identity

  3. Component #1: Sex • DEFINITION: • Biological/chromosomal distinctions that determine physical characteristics in males and females • Sex chromosomes, sex organs, sex hormones & reproductive functions

  4. Component # 2: Gender • DEFINITION: • Culturally, socially & historically conditioned categories of identity • Based primarily on cultural values

  5. Component # 2: Gender • Gender Identity: • Culturally conditioned sense of self • One’s awareness of being masculine or feminine • Gender Roles: • Specific behaviors & attitudes expected of men and women, as established by society

  6. Component # 2: Gender

  7. Component # 2: Gender • Cultural universals in regards to gender roles? • Are there only two genders? California’s 2006 DMV Manual

  8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XBCLGDbhKg

  9. Component #3: Sexuality • DEFINITION: • A concept that includes an individual’s desires, behaviors, sexual identity, and orientation

  10. Component #3: Sexuality • Sexual Orientation: • Patterns of sexual attraction exhibited by an individual • Continuumof sexual orientation, rather than sharp categories • Heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual

  11. Part TWO: Social Stratification

  12. Gender Inequity • Sexism (Individual): • The belief that one sex is superior to the other • Inherent biological differences create naturally different roles; these roles lead to the differential distribution of power, status & income

  13. Gender Inequity • Sexism (Institutional): • Policies, procedures & practices that produce unequal outcomes for men and women • Examples: • Education, politics, workplace, athletics, etc.

  14. Fascinating Womanhood • Helen B. Andelin, 1965 • Home Economics textbook for high school girls • Excerpts

  15. Fascinating Womanhood • Get your work done • Prepare yourself • Have dinner ready • Clear away the clutter • Prepare the children • Minimize all noise

  16. Fascinating Womanhood • Be happy to see him • Make him comfortable • Listen to him • Make the evening his • The goal • Some don’ts

  17. World Gender Inequity • Annual Human Rights Report, 2006 • EXAMPLES OF INEQUITY: • Sex trade & forced labor (Ghana) • Honor killings (Middle East & North Africa) • Underage prostitution • Sex-selective breeding • Female circumcision

  18. U.S. Gender Inequity • EDUCATION: • Studies show young boys are called on more often in school and receive more of a teacher’s attention

  19. U.S. Gender Inequity • The “Glass Ceiling” • Idea that there is an invisible barrier that keeps woman from advancing to the top positionswithin a company

  20. U.S. Gender Inequity • The Glass Escalator: • Men who enter predominantly female occupations are disproportionately likely to be promoted to leadership positions

  21. U.S. Gender Inequity • Disparities in Pay: • For every dollar a man earns in the U.S., women earn 81 cents • Women are over represented in higher education, but men are compensated more for the same education…

  22. Disparities in Earnings Remain Significant

  23. U.S. Gender Inequity • Why? Type of work women do? • However…book editing/nursing… • More likely to be caregivers to children/elderly parents

  24. U.S. Gender Inequity • The Second Shift • While women are now working in greater numbers, men are only doing slightly more housework

  25. U.S. Gender Inequity • Business: • Money from investors and loans for entrepreneurs and startups mostly goes from men to other men

  26. U.S. Gender Inequity • POLITICS & GOVERNMENT: • Though number of women in politics has increased, representation is still a problem • WHY? • Low “supply” of candidates • Low “demand” for female candidates • “Damned-if-you-do-or-don’t” standards