chapter 13 sex differences and gender role development l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 319 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development . INTRODUCTION. Sex – person’s biological identity Chromosomes; physical manifestations of identity; hormonal influences Gender – person’s social and cultural identity as male or female

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development' - Thomas


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Sex – person’s biological identity
    • Chromosomes; physical manifestations of identity; hormonal influences
  • Gender – person’s social and cultural identity as male or female
  • Gender typing – process of acquiring a gender identity and the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate for their biological sex
categorizing males and females gender role standards
CATEGORIZING MALES AND FEMALES: GENDER ROLE STANDARDS
  • Gender role standard – value, motive, or behavior considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other
    • Expressive role – female – kind, nurturing, cooperative, sensitive to others’ needs
    • Instrumental role – male – dominant, assertive, independent, and competitive
slide4
Table 13.1 Sex Differences in the Socialization of Five Attributes in 110 Societies. NOTE: The percentages for each attribute do not add to 100 because some of the societies did not place differential pressures on boys and girls with respect to that attribute. For example, 18% of the societies for which pertinent data were available did not differentiate between the sexes in the socialization of nurturance. SOURCE: Adapted from BARRY, BACON, & CHILD, 1957.
some facts and fictions about sex differences
SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES
  • Actual Psychological Differences Between the Sexes
    • Verbal Ability – girls are superior
    • Visual/Spatial Abilities – boys are superior
      • Evident by 4, persists across life span
    • Mathematical Abilities
      • In adolescence, boys better at arithmetic reasoning
      • Girls better at computational skills
slide6
Figure 13.1 A spatial task for which sex differences in performance have been found. FROM LINN & PETERSEN, 1985.
some facts and fictions about sex differences7
SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES
  • Aggression
    • Beginning at age 2, boys are more physically and verbally aggressive
    • Girls more likely to display covert aggression
some facts and fictions about sex differences8
SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES
  • Other Sex Differences
    • Activity level – boys are more physically active (even before birth)
    • Fear, timidity, and risk-taking – girls are more fearful, timid, and take fewer risks
      • No difference in cognitive impulsivity
    • Developmental vulnerability – boys are more vulnerable to prenatal and perinatal hazards and disease
some facts and fictions about sex differences9
SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES
  • Emotional expressivity / sensitivity
    • Beginning in toddlerhood
      • Boys express more anger
      • Girls express most other emotions more frequently
  • Compliance – girls are more compliant
some facts and fictions about sex differences10
SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES
  • Conclusions
    • Differences reflect group averages
    • Differences are small
    • Differences are most apparent at the extremes
    • Males and females are much more psychologically similar than they are different
slide11
Figure 13.2 These two distributions of scores-one for males, one for females-give some idea of the size of the gap between the sexes in abilities for which sex differences are consistently found. Despite a small difference in average performance, the scores of males and females overlap considerably. APAPTED FROM HYDE, FENNEMA, & LAMON, 1990.
cultural myths
CULTURAL MYTHS
  • Most gender-role stereotypes are “cultural myths”
    • No basis in fact
      • Due to well-ingrained cognitive schemas
        • Interpret and distort behavior
cultural myths13
CULTURAL MYTHS
  • Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability/Vocational Opportunity?
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy actually promotes sex differences in cognitive performance
    • Home Influences
      • Parents expect sons to outperform daughters in math
      • Son’s successes are due to ability, daughter’s due to hard work
cultural myths14
CULTURAL MYTHS
  • Home Influences, continued
    • Children internalize parent’s views, boys become self-confident
    • Girls lose interest in math, due to perceived lack of ability
  • Scholastic Influences
    • Teachers have similar views affecting children in a similar manner
developmental trends in gender typing
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Development of the Gender Concept
    • By age 2 ½ to 3, accurately label oneself as a boy or girl
    • 5 to 7 years – gender is unchanging
developmental trends in gender typing16
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes
    • Present at 2 to 3 years, once children can label pictures of children as boys or girls
    • 3 to 7 – view gender-role standards as rules
    • 8 to 9 – more flexible, distinction between moral rules and gender-role standards
developmental trends in gender typing17
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Cultural Influences
    • Collectivist societies tend to encourage conforming to gender-role standards
  • Adolescent Thinking About Gender Stereotypes
    • Less flexible again; increased pressure to conform – gender intensification
    • Later in high school, may be more flexible again
slide18
Figure 13.3 Children’s rankings of the wrongness of gender-role transgressions (such as a boy’s wearing nail polish) and violations of moral rules (such as pushing another child from a swing). Notice that children of all ages deplore immoral acts but that only kindergartners and adolescents view gender-role violations as wrong. Elementary school children come to think about gender-role standards in a more flexible way than they did earlier in life, but adolescents become concerned about the psychological implications of deviating from one’s “proper” gender identity. ADAPTED FROM STODDARD & TURIEL, 1985.
developmental trends in gender typing19
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Development of Gender-Typed Behavior
    • 14 to 22 months – prefer gender appropriate toys
    • Gender Segregation
      • 2 years, girls prefer playing with girls
      • 3 years, boys prefer playing with boys
        • Due to differences in play styles
        • Cognitive and social-cognitive development
slide20
Figure 13.4 Two- to 3-year-old toddlers already prefer playmates of their own sex. Boys are much more social with boys than with girls, whereas girls are more outgoing with girls than with boys. ADAPTED FROM JACKLIN & MACCOBY, 1978.
developmental trends in gender typing21
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Sex Differences in Gender-Typed Behavior
    • Males have greater status
    • Males feel stronger pressure to adhere to gender appropriate codes
    • Most girls do comply with prescriptions for the feminine role by adolescence
      • Be attractive to opposite sex
      • Concern of others evaluations
slide22
Table 13.2 Percentages of Boys and Girls Who Requested Popular “Masculine” and “Feminine” Items from Santa Claus. SOURCE: Adapted from Richardson & Simpson, 1982.
developmental trends in gender typing23
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING
  • Subcultural Variations in Gender-Typing
    • Middle class adolescents hold more flexible gender-role attitudes then low SES peers
    • African American children hold less stereotyped views of women than European American children
      • Both due to differences in education and family life
theories of gender typing and gender role development
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Evolutionary Theory
    • Males and females face different evolutionary pressures
    • Natural selection created fundamental differences in male and female roles
      • Females need to be nurturing
      • Males need spatial skills for hunting
theories of gender typing and gender role development25
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Criticisms of the Evolutionary Approach
    • Applies to differences that apply cross-culturally
    • Ignores differences limited to cultures or historical periods
    • Social roles hypothesis
      • Cultures assign roles based on gender
      • Socialization practices
theories of gender typing and gender role development26
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Money & Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory of Gender Differentiation and Development
    • Inherit X or Y chromosome from father
    • If Y, testes secrete testosterone and MIS
      • Resulting in male genitals
    • At birth, social factors become important
      • Child is labeled by society
    • At puberty sex characteristics and urges combine with label
slide27
Figure 13.5 Critical events in Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of sex typing. FROM MONEY & EHRHARDT, 1972.
theories of gender typing and gender role development28
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Evidence for Biological Influences on Gender-Role Development
    • Genetic influences
      • 50% of the differences in masculine, 0-20% of the differences in feminine self-concepts
      • Strong masculine self-concept and experience with spatial toys increases abilities
theories of gender typing and gender role development29
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Hormonal influences
    • If females are exposed to excess androgen prenatally, result is masculinized external genitalia
      • Alters play behavior
      • Increases interest in same-sex relationships
      • Influences career and family choices
theories of gender typing and gender role development30
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Evidence for Social-Labeling Influences
    • Surgery and gender reassignment are generally successful for androgenized females
      • Prior to 18 months of age
      • After age 3, very difficult
        • Masculine gender typing
        • Labeling of self as a boy
theories of gender typing and gender role development31
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Cultural influences
    • Mead’s study of tribal societies
      • Arapesh – both males and females were taught to be expressive
      • Mundugumor – both genders were taught to be “masculine”
      • Tchambuli – from Western standards, males more feminine, females more masculine
theories of gender typing and gender role development32
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • A psychobiosocial viewpoint
    • Prenatal hormone exposure influences brain development
      • Creates different sensitivities for males and females
      • Coupled with others’ beliefs, provides more exposure to gender consistent materials
theories of gender typing and gender role development33
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Males become gender typed as they identify with their father to resolve the Oedipus complex
    • Fathers encourage feminine behavior in females (modeled after mother)
    • Lack of research support
theories of gender typing and gender role development34
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Social Learning Theory
    • Direct tuition – children are encouraged and rewarded for gender-appropriate behaviors
      • Parents begin the process
      • Siblings and peers reinforce it
theories of gender typing and gender role development35
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Observational learning – children adopt the attitudes and behaviors of same-sex models
    • Also important is the label attached to the attitude or behavior
    • Same-sex models become more important at ages 5 to 7, when gender is unchanging aspect of the self
    • Media influences
theories of gender typing and gender role development36
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Kohlberg’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
    • Children first establish a stable gender identity
      • Basic gender identity:
        • By age 3, label themselves as a boy or girl
      • Gender stability:
        • Occurs next
theories of gender typing and gender role development37
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
    • Gender consistency:
      • By 5-7, gender is consistent across situations
  • After achieving gender consistency
    • Children actively seek out same-sex models to determine how to act
theories of gender typing and gender role development38
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Gender-typing begins well before children acquire a mature gender identity
    • Gender reassignment is very difficult after age 3
theories of gender typing and gender role development39
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Gender Schema Theory (Martin & Halverson)
    • Children acquire a basic gender identity
      • Motivates child to learn about the sexes and create gender schemas
        • Begin as simple in-group/out-group schemas
        • Also create an own-sex schema
        • Schemas serve as scripts for processing social information
slide40
Figure 13.6 Gender-schema theory in action. A young girl classifies new information according to an in-group/out-group schema as either “for boys” or “for girls.” Information about boys’ toys and activities is ignored, but information about toys and activities for girls in relevant to the self and so is added to an ever-larger own-sex schema. ADAPTED FROM MARTIN & HALVERSON, 1987.
theories of gender typing and gender role development41
THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT
  • An Integrative Theory
    • Biological theories account for major biological developments
    • Social-theories account for differential reinforcement processes
    • Cognitive development explains the growth of categorization skills
    • Gender schemas are also important as are models as children age
slide42
Table 13.3 An Overview of the Gender-Typing Process from the Perspective of an Integrative Theorist.
psychological androgyny a prescription for the 21 st century
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY?
  • Historically, masculinity and femininity were at opposite ends of a single dimensions
  • Androgyny – sees them as 2 separate dimensions, allowing individuals to be high in both masculine and feminine traits
slide44
Figure 13.7 Categories of sex-role orientation based on viewing masculinity and femininity as separate dimensions of personality.
psychological androgyny a prescription for the 21 st century45
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY?
  • Do Androgynous People Really Exist?
    • In a college student sample
      • 33% were masculine men or feminine women
      • 30% were androgynous
      • 27% undifferentiated or gender-type reversed
slide46
Table 13.4 Sample Items from a Gender-Role Inventory for Grade-school Children. Source: Adapted from Boldizar, 1991.
psychological androgyny a prescription for the 21 st century47
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY?
  • Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous?
    • More highly adaptable to the situation
    • Higher self-esteem
    • More likeable
    • Perceived as better adjusted
      • The masculine traits are more important for adjustment
psychological androgyny a prescription for the 21 st century48
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY?
  • Applications: On Changing Gender Role Attitudes and Behavior
    • Parents must teach that biological sex is unimportant other than for reproduction
    • Delay exposure to gender stereotypes
    • Interventions work best with younger children
    • Programs work best if the adult in charge is male