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Chapter Two The Planting of English America

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  1. Chapter TwoThe Planting of English America AP U.S. History

  2. Types of Colonies • proprietary colonies - land grants given to individuals or small groups • charter colonies - land grants (or charters) given to private companies • royal colonies - Crown had complete control over governmental actions (they appointed the govenor and the council) • Often chartered colonies became royal colonies after their charter was revoked.

  3. England’s Imperial Stirrings • Queen Elizabeth • Puritanism increases • Competition with Spain – Protestant England vs. Catholic Spain

  4. Elizabeth Energizes England • Sir Frances Drake – pirated Spanish ships • Sir Humphrey Gilbert/Sir Walter Raleigh - Roanoke • Defeat of Spanish Armada – naval dominance over Atlantic • England on eve of colonizing: • Strong unified nation under popular monarch • Religious unity • Strong nationalism

  5. England on the Eve of Empire • Overpopulation, unemployment • Land practice (primogeniture) • Joint Stock company – financial means

  6. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling • King – James • VA Co. of London • GOLD!!!! No • Food?? No • John Smith • Powhatan • 1609 – 1610 – Starving Time - 60 0f 400 survived

  7. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake • Declaration of War against Indians • 2 Anglo-Powhatan Wars – Results? • Indians gone, colonists move West • VA co. bankrupt, lost charter, becomes royal charter • Diseases – destroyed cultures, traditions • Competition increased among groups for European goods

  8. Virginia: Child of Tobacco • John Rolfe • Basis of economy – “Colony built on smoke” • Plantations/rivers • Dutch – 20 slaves • Indentured servants • House of Burgesses – 1619 – first colonial parliament

  9. Maryland: Catholic Haven • Lord Baltimore • Proprietary Colony • Safe Haven for Catholics, but… • Act of Religious Tolerance - 1649 - Catholics sought to protect their faith by granting a certain degree of religious freedom.

  10. The West Indies: Way Station… • Sugar Cane – expensive • dependent on slave labor - slaves outnumbered whites 4:1 • Barbados Code • As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolina with their slaves to farm.

  11. Colonizing the Carolinas • Goal – grow food for Barbados • Rice – required hard labor – slaves • Slave Codes • Charlestown • North Carolina – VA’s “trash” 1712

  12. Georgia • James Oglethorpe • Buffer between Carolina/Spanish Florida/French Louisiana • Savannah • Debtors

  13. Questions • What did England and the English settlers really want from colonization? Did they get what they wanted? • How did the reliance on plantation agriculture affect the southern colonies?