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The Planting of English America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Planting of English America

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  1. The Planting of English America 1500 - 1733

  2. Christopher Columbus • Arrived North America in 1492 • Sailed for Spain – Queen Isabella • Actually arrived in Caribbean • Only 10% of native population survived the next 100 years • From Florida south, Spain controlled

  3. “Sea Dogs” • Francis Drake • knighted by Queen Elizabeth for plundering Spanish ships • Resulted in problems for Spain and England

  4. Failed Attempts • 1583-- First attempt of British colonization failed in Newfoundland • 1585 – Sir Walter Raleigh – Roanoke Island • Settlers landed on Roanoke Island, NC settlement VANSIHED!

  5. Spain is Defeated • 1588- Defeat of the Spanish Armada by England • 1604– Treaty of Peace between England and Spain

  6. Population increase (enclosing of land) Economic depression Primogeniture Joint Stock Company Religious Persecution Peace with Spain Early 1600’s – Factors which led to English colonization

  7. Virginia Company 1607 • Purpose: seeking gold, conversion of Indians, & passage to the Indies • Received charter from King James I to settle in the New World • guaranteed settlers the rights of Englishmen • Jamestown settled

  8. Virginia Colony • Saved from collapse by: • John Smith – Work = Food • starving time • Colonists tried to leave but were turned back by Lord De La Warr • 1625 - 1200 out of the 8000 were left

  9. Powhatan • Chief Powhatan – dominated natives in the James River area • Problems arose - colonists started raided Indian food supplies • Lord De La Warr attacked Indians • First Anglo-Powhatan War-1614 • Second Anglo-Powhatan War - 1644

  10. John Rolfe - Saved the colony perfected tobacco Tyranny of “King Nicotine” Drained the soil & prices fluctuated Virginia: Child of Tobacco

  11. African Slaves • 1619 - African Slaves – Dutch warship sold 20 Black Africans to Jamestown

  12. Representative Assembly • House of Burgesses organized in 1619 • 1st of its kind in the colonies • Upset King James I • made Virginia a royal colony

  13. Maryland • 1634 – Founded by Lord Baltimore • proprietary colony • Tobacco economy based on white indentured servants

  14. Maryland • A refuge for persecuted Catholics • 1649 – Maryland Act of Toleration: • Guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians – not Jews or atheists

  15. The West Indies • 1655 - England claimed Jamaica • Economy based on sugar • Slaves outnumbered white settlers • Depended on North America mainland for food & other supplies

  16. King Charles II • 1649 - Charles I beheaded • Oliver Cromwell takes over • 1660- Charles II restored to the English throne after Cromwell’s 10 year rule

  17. The Carolinas • 1670 – settled by 8 lord proprietors • Prospered by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies

  18. The Carolinas • Early exports - Indian slaves & rice • Rice cultivation led to import of Africans slaves • Slaves were immune to malaria (but susceptible to sickle cell anemia) • Charles Town - busiest seaport in the south

  19. The Split • 1712 – “Squatters” from Virginia moved to North Carolina • Great resistance to authority & aristocracy • North Carolina was officially separated from South Carolina • Both became royal colonies

  20. Georgia • 1733 – Founded by James Oglethorpe • haven for debtors • buffer against Spanish Florida & the French in Louisiana • Only colony to receive subsidies from British gov’t • Restrictions on black slavery after 1750

  21. Plantation economy Profitable staple crops like tobacco & rice Slavery Large acreage in the hands of a favored few “Soil Butchery” led to expansion westward Establishment of churches & schools difficult Some religious toleration Tax-supported church of England dominate Common Characteristics of the Southern Colonies