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THE PLANTING OF ENGLISH AMERICA. CHAPTER 2 (1500-1733). Complex? American Themes Passion for freedom Pursuit of Education Faith in popular government Accepting of new ideas We are the “City on the Hill”. Day 1, Ice Breaker!!. Who is LTC Kincaid? Who are you? Where are you from?

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slide2
Complex?
  • American Themes
    • Passion for freedom
    • Pursuit of Education
    • Faith in popular government
    • Accepting of new ideas
    • We are the “City on the Hill”
day 1 ice breaker
Day 1, Ice Breaker!!
  • Who is LTC Kincaid?
  • Who are you?
    • Where are you from?
    • What do you like about history and Government?
    • What are your hobbies?
    • What is your favorite movie?
    • What was the last book you read (not assigned)?
    • Name a national issue that is, or will be, important to you
what are your responsibilities
What are your responsibilities?
  • Syllabus
  • Goals
  • Format
    • Notes
  • Rules
    • Ethics
  • Homework
  • Grades
  • Notebooks
  • Help
  • Bathroom
  • Questions??
dawning of 17 th century
Dawning of 17th Century
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Mercantilism
    • Limit Imports/Enhance Exports
    • Gold and other precious metals determine wealth of a nation
      • Peruvian and Mexican silver
  • Religion
    • Catholicism
    • Protestantism
  • Far Distant Colonies
    • Spanish (Santa Fe) in 1610 (soldiers)
    • French (Quebec) in 1608 (priests and trading posts)
    • English (Jamestown) in 1607 (families)
england s imperial stirrings
Economic recession and depression hits England

1550s (farmers and sheepherders)

Puritanism taking hold

“Surplus” population through the 1600s

England’s Imperial Stirrings

Page 25

england s imperial stirrings1
Spain “on a roll” after 1492 for nearly 70 years

Advantage over Portugal

England

Internal domestic

English Protestant Reformation period by King Henry VIII in 1530s

England’s Imperial Stirrings
elizabeth energizes england
Elizabeth Energizes England
  • Elizabeth consolidates Protestantism and crushes Catholics
  • English buccaneers
    • Raid Spanish treasure ships
    • Twin goals (promote)
      • Protestantism
      • Seizing Spanish gold and other treasures
  • Sir Francis Drake

Page 26

england s imperial stirrings2
England’s Imperial Stirrings
  • Rise of Protestant Queen Elizabeth I
    • Virgin Queen
    • Economic, Political and Military struggle with Spain to compete for New World order and opportunities
      • Sir Humphrey Gilbert
      • Newfoundland
  • King Philip II (Spain)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh
    • Wit, good looks and courtly manners
    • Royal Charter (contract)
    • Roanoke (1585)
elizabeth energizes england1
War with Spain 1588

Spanish flotilla, 130 strong, into the English Channel

Large versus small ships

Tactics

Weather

End of the Spanish imperial dreams

England rules the seas

Elizabeth Energizes England

p27

england on the eve of empire
Expanding population

Flowering of English national spirit

Golden Age of Literature

William Shakespeare

Treaty (1604) with Spain

England launches into colonization of the New World

England on the Eve of Empire
england plants the jamestown seedling
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
  • “Rights of Englishmen”
    • Festered resentment of the mother country and the Catholic King
  • King James I
  • Raleigh sells vested interests in North America charter
  • Virginia Company of London
    • Joint-Stock company (1606)
  • Chesapeake Bay
    • Jamestown (1607)
    • James River

p28

england plants the jamestown seedling1
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
  • Jamestown
    • Christopher Newport
    • 108 settlers
      • 40 perish in first winter
    • Ships (hurricane) shipwrecked in Bermuda
    • John Smith
      • “He who shall not work shall not eat.”
      • Captured (December 1607)
england plants the jamestown seedling2
Pocahontas

Chief Powhatan

Opanchancanough

Under-chief

Chief of the Pamunkies

Uncle of Pocahontas

John Smith nearly killed

Returned to England (1609)

Settlers decide to return themselves

James River going home in 1610

England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
cultural class in the chesapeake
Lord De La Warr

Met settlers

Irish tactics

Aggressive campaign against the Indians

By 1625; only 1,200 of 8,000 settlers survive

Cultural Class in the Chesapeake

"Arrival of Lord del la Warr"

cultural clash in the chesapeake
Powhatan’s Confederacy

Asserted supremacy

Lord De La Warr

Employed the “Irish tactics”

Raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions and torched cornfields”

First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614)

Ended with marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas

First interracial union in Virginia

Second Anglo-Powhatan War

Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
cultural clash in the chesapeake1
Second Anglo-Powhatan War 1644

Death of Pocahontas in 1617

Gravesend, England

Openchancanough

Treaty (1646)

Native-Americans

10% (2,000 Indians) left in Virginia by 1669

Powhatan’s calamitous misfortune

Victim of the three Ds:

Disease

Disorganization

disposability

Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
the indians new world
Demise of the Indian in Virginia and surrounding area

Three Ds

Forced migration

Trade transformation

Expanding Atlantic economy

Inferior resentment by English

The Indians’ New World
virginia child of tobacco
John Rolfe

“father of the tobacco industry”

“bewitching weed”

“King Nicotine”

Promoted the broad-acred plantation system

Demand for labor

Slave labor

Virginia: Child of Tobacco
virginia child of tobacco1
Slaves to Virginia

1619

Jamestown

By 1650, three-hundred slaves (14% of the population)

King James I

Hostile toward Virginia

Desired tobacco, but distrusted the House of Burgesses

First legislative body in North America

“seminary of sedition”

Revoked Charter making it a royal colony directly under his control

Virginia: Child of Tobacco
maryland catholic haven
Maryland: Catholic Haven
  • Maryland was formed in 1634 by Lord Baltimore.
  • Maryland was made for a refuge for the Catholics to escape the wrath of the Protestant English government.
  • The Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative group in Maryland, granted toleration to all Christians.

p33

the west indies way station to mainland america
By the mid-17th Century, England had secured its claim to several West Indian Islands. 

Sugar was, by far, the major crop on the Indian Islands.

To support the massive sugar crops, millions of African slaves were imported.  By 1700, the number of black slaves to white settlers in the English West Indies by nearly 4 to 1. .

The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
the west indies way station to mainland america1
Sugar

Whereas, tobacco was considered a “poor man’s” crop; sugar a “rich man’s” crop

Captial-intensive business

Crops

Mill

Refining of the Sugar

Labor intensive

The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
the west indies way station to mainland america2
Sugar cane plantations in West Indies

Within 50 years

250,000 slaves

Four-to-one dominance

Notorious “Barbados slave code of 1661”

Denied basic human rights to Africans

The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
the west indies way station to mainland america3
English farmers in West Indies “squeezed out” by sugar owners

Small group of barons from Barbados arrived in Carolina in 1670

Slaves and Slave codes (1696)

Encomienda system

The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
colonizing the carolinas
1640s England, King Charles I

Dismissed Parliament

Oliver Cromwell rebellion

English Civil war

Puritans

11 years

King Charles II restored throne in 1660

Colonizing the Carolinas

p36

13 original colonies page 37
13 Original Colonies (page 37)

The Thirteen Original Colonies

the emergence of north carolina
The Emergence of North Carolina
  • Poorer tobacco planters to North Carolina
    • Haven for pirates
    • Cape Hatteras
      • “graveyard of the Atlantic”
    • Developed a strong spirit of resistance to authority
    • Separated in 1712 from South Carolina
the emergence of north carolina1
Spanish Florida using tribes to harass southern colonies

North Carolinas defeated the Tuscarora Indians

6th tribe of the Iroquois Confederation

South Carolinas defeated the Yamasee Indians

The Emergence of North Carolina
the emergence of north carolina2
By 1720

Hills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains

Cherokees

Creeks

Iroquois

The Emergence of North Carolina
the iroquois
Mohawk Valley (NY)

Iroquois Confederacy

Mohawks

Oneidas

Onondagas

Cayugas

Senecas

Deganawidah and Hiawatha

Algonkin (Algonquin)

The Iroquois
the iroquois1
Longhouse

Maternal

Government and constitution

Mohawks

“keepers of the Eastern Fire”

Middlemen to the European traders

Seneca

“Keepers of the Western Fire”

Fur trading

Enemies

Hurons

Eries

Petuns

The Iroquois
late coming of georgia
Late-Coming of Georgia
  • English crown intended Georgia to be a buffer zone against Spanish Florida
  • Named in honor of King George II of England
    • James Oglethorpe
    • Savannah
    • Charleston
    • German Lutherans
    • Scots Highlanders
    • No Catholics
slide35
1558                        - Elizabeth I becomes queen of England
  • 1565-1590               - English crush Irish uprising
  • 1577                        - Drake circumnavigates the globe
  • 1585                        - Raleigh founds Roanoke colony
  • 1588                        - England defeats Spanish Armada
  • 1603                        - James I becomes kind of England
  • 1604                        - Spain and England sign peace treaty
  • 1607                        - Virginia colony founded at Jamestown
  • 1612                        - Rolfe perfects tobacco culture in Virginia
  • 1614                        - First Anglo-Powhatan War ends
  • 1619                        - First Africans in Jamestown.  Virginia House of Burgesses 1624                        - Virginia becomes a royal colony
  • 1634                        - Maryland colony founded
  • 1640s                      - Large-scale slave-labor system in English West Indies
  • 1644                        - Second Anglo-Powhatan War
  • 1649                        - Act of Toleration in Maryland.  Charles I beheaded; Cromwell rules England
  • 1660                        - Charles II restored to English throne
  • 1661                        - Barbados slave code adopted
  • 1670                        - Carolina colony created
  • 1711-1713               - Tuscarora War in North Carolina
  • 1712                        - North Carolina formally separates from South Carolina
  • 1715-1716               - Yamasee War in South Carolina
  • 1733                        - Georgia colony founded