Canadian Geospace Monitoring Program: CANOPUS Array Operations In Support of THEMIS
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Canadian Geospace Monitoring Program: CANOPUS Array Operations In Support of THEMIS. Dr. Ian R. Mann Canada Research Chair in Space Physics Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Canada. THEMIS Ground-based Meeting, UC Berkeley 2nd June, 2003. Faculty of Science.

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Faculty of science

Canadian Geospace Monitoring Program: CANOPUS Array Operations In Support of THEMIS

Dr. Ian R. Mann

Canada Research Chair in Space Physics

Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Canada.

THEMIS Ground-based Meeting, UC Berkeley

2nd June, 2003

Faculty of Science

Present canopus program
Present CANOPUS Program Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Canada has one of the worlds prime location for ground-based auroral and solar-terrestrial science.

  • The CANOPUS magnetometer array currently operates 13 Narod Geophysics Ltd design fluxgate magnetometers at 5s resolution.

  • Real-time 5s data stream is collected via Anik satellite through Ottawa node, and real-time plots available on the WWW at

  • CANOPUS magnetometer array will continue to operate under the umbrella of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) program between at least 2003-8.

Current participants in canadian geospace monitoring cgsm
Current Participants in Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) Operations In Support of THEMIS

Canadian SuperDARN Radars

  • Canadian Partners:



  • Magnetometers

  • Solar F10.7

Canopus magnetometers

and riometers

Norstar ASC and Photometers

Current cgsm operations
Current CGSM Operations Operations In Support of THEMIS

Current canopus and canmos array configurations
Current CANOPUS and CANMOS Array Configurations Operations In Support of THEMIS

CANOPUS and CANMOS arrays of fluxgate magnetometers.

Canmos operations and developments
CANMOS Operations and Developments Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Since 2000 all CANMOS instruments have sampled at 1Hz.

  • GPS timing being deployed for entire array – to be complete by October 2004.

  • Presently real-time 1Hz data from Ottawa and Iqualuit. Plans for Yellowknife and Victoria data in real-time later in 2003.

  • The Glenlea observatory will be moved to Brandon by September 2003. Real-time internet data may also become available from this site.

  • David Boteler at NRCan ( is the CANMOS PI.

Fantastic operational expansion within cgsm
Fantastic Operational Expansion within CGSM Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Three-fold increase in high resolution magnetometers.

  • Massive expansion in state-of-the-art overlapping ASC.

  • Co-ordinated VSAT data collection in real-time.

  • CDAM/FDAM drives scientific, model development and space weather prediction advances.

Expanded canopus array infrastructure within cgsm
Expanded CANOPUS Array Infrastructure Within CGSM Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Expansions to existing CANOPUS array targetted at outstanding solar-terrestrial physics problems.

  • Deployment of 15 additional Narod fluxgate magnetometers at 1Hz; 8 new induction coil magnetometers at 20Hz.

  • Infrastructure development to utilize state-of-the-art Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) satellite data collection in real-time following end of Telesat operations in 2005.

University of alberta canopus magnetometry pi institute
University of Alberta: CANOPUS Magnetometry PI-Institute Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Entire U.K. SAMNET magnetometry group relocated to Alberta.

  • Successful $1.3M CRC-CFI proposal by Mann for CANOPUS magnetometer array expansion.

  • Mann becomes CANOPUS PI in October 2003.

  • New infrastructure will contribute valuable ground data towards fundamental THEMIS science targets.

Expanded canopus array configuration
Expanded CANOPUS Array Configuration Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Upgrade of all CANOPUS fluxgates to 1Hz sampling.

  • Deployment of mid-latitude extension to Churchill line covering outer radiation belt and spanning the plasmapause.

  • Constitute second mid-latitude Alberta line meridian enabling LT-UT resolution and azimuthal variation diagnosis.

  • Mid-latitude grid of magnetometers enables substorm Pi2 and magnetic bay location algorithms to be deployed.

  • Deployment of magnetometers under the FOV of Prince George/Kodiak SuperDARN radars.

  • Auroral to mid-latitude 20Hz induction coil magnetometer coverage (8 instruments) of high freq. magnetospheric waves.

Vsat real time data collection
VSAT Real-time Data Collection Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Real-time VSAT data collection from fluxgates (all upgraded to 1Hz) and induction coil (20Hz) magnetometers.

  • Real-time data collection of CGSM riometer array data, digital ionosonde data, and summary 1 min 64x64 8-bit resolution All-Sky-Camera images.

  • Provides excellent opportunities and for the development of real-time value added data products.

  • Data collection via central VSAT hub and PC at the University of Alberta, and data fed directly into the CGSM Space Science Data Portal (SSDP) computer via dedicated fibre link.

Time lines and funding
Time Lines and Funding Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • $1.2M CAD awarded for new CANOPUS instrumentation and deployment awarded through Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI). Field deployment between April 2004 and October 2006.

  • VSAT real-time architecture test-bed and instrument interfacing contract expected from CSA; work to be completed October 2004.

  • CGSM funding due to begin October 2003.

  • Subject to successful testing, CGSM upgrade to VSAT technology and 1Hz for existing CANOPUS array April 2004-October 2005. VSAT upgrade of 6 new CANOPUS array sites complete by October 2007.

Vsat data rates
VSAT Data Rates Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Satellite channels can carry 128 kbits/s below 62o geographic.

  • Above 62o data rates are more uncertain. Conservative estimate is 32 kbps, although 64 kbits/sec may be possible at high latitudes depending upon location.

  • VSAT provides the opportunity for limited 2-way communication; this limits available downlink bandwidth.

  • Conservative available downlink rates are 80 kbps and 32kpbs for data transfer at high/low latitudes respectively.

  • Plan to collect fluxgate and induction mag., MSP, riometer, ionosonde, and summary ASC data via VSAT in real-time.

Vsat hardware
VSAT Hardware Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • VSAT Central Hub can carry upto 4 carinas; one carina per satellite channel. Realistically anticipate 2 carinas for CGSM.

  • Each VSAT Ku band (100 kHz) satellite channel can carry 13 (perhaps 14) remote stations at required data rates.

  • Remote VSAT libra terminals provide GPS timing as well as remote IP node.

  • 1.8m and 2.4m VSAT dishes, and 1W and 2W transmitters are required at “high” and “low” latitudes respectively.

  • Extensive and proven field heritage for VSAT from operations for RT data collection within Polaris MT project.

Cgsm themis vsat coordination
CGSM-THEMIS VSAT Coordination? Operations In Support of THEMIS

  • Spare data rate from CGSM-THEMIS VSAT sites could potentially be devoted to THEMIS ASC data retrival.

  • THEMIS science data rate requirement can be met at all THEMIS-CGSM sites except Rankin Inlet.

  • If we achieve higher VSAT data rates at high latitudes in practice this site may be possible too.

  • Propose LAN network connectivity between VSAT and THEMIS logger/control PCs.

  • Unix/linux operating system for THEMIS ASC logger PCs?

Science target radiation belts
Science Target: Radiation Belts Operations In Support of THEMIS

Understand acceleration and loss of relativistic (MeV) energy electrons in radiation belts:

  • Global scale monitoring of accelerating ULF waves (magnetometers; Mann Co-PI on US NSF proposal to develop ULF Index).

  • Global scale monitoring of loss inducing high frequency EMIC (induction coil magnetometers).

  • Modelling of wave-particle interaction between ULF and seed electrons (FDAM/CDAM).

  • Radiation belt observations via ILWS mission partners: THEMIS, LWS radiation belt mappers, GOES, LANL, Polar, Cluster, HEO, SAMPEX…

  • Output: Improved radiation belt specification models with application to satellite design, space insurance, and space weather industries.

Faculty of science

(a) during March 1995.


HEO L=4.5



HEO >1.5 MeV#/s

GEO 1.8-3.5 MeV#/cm2/s/sr/keV


(Yearly Running Averages)

HEO L=5.5







ULF Power(nT2/Hz)

Vsw (km/s)


GML x8

FAR x4



(Yearly Running Averages)




Monthly Average

12-Month Running Average


Sunspot Number






GEO +2d


ROCC with Vsw

L=5.5 +3d



(Yearly Running ROCCs)

L=4.5 +3d




(Yearly Running ROCCs)






L=5.5 +3d


GEO +2d

L=4.5 +3d







  • MeV electron-ULF wave relationship.

  • Solar cycle 1990-2001 of data.

  • Strong correlation between ULF and MeV electron flux.

  • Inwards propagation of Vsw and ULF power correlated MeV electron enhancements.

Science target fundamental cold plasma transport processes
Science Target: Fundamental Cold Plasma Transport Processes during March 1995.

Understand fundamental processes of cold plasma mass injection, transport and loss:

  • Cross-time series techniques allow reconstruction of global plasma density maps (magnetometer coverage from polar cap-plasmasphere).

  • Multiple local and global meridians offer LT-UT resolution.

  • Understand dynamical processes of injection, transport and loss of cold plasma; formation, erosion and structure of plasmasphere.

  • Strong synergy with NASA IMAGE mission and Canadian e-Pop.

  • Output: Improved understanding of global mass injection and transport, improved inner magnetosphere GGCM models, improved satellite drag/orbit decay models, improved GPS accuracy.

Global plasma density maps
Global Plasma Density Maps during March 1995.

(Courtesy of Colin Waters)

Cross-phase technique provides global scale monitoring of cold

plasma density profiles along a single meridian.

Azimuthal structure in outer plasmaspheric dynamics
Azimuthal Structure in Outer Plasmaspheric Dynamics during March 1995.

(From Dent et al., GRL, Submitted, 2003)

Global international magnetometer array coverage provides global density mapping and enables spatio-temporal ambiguity resolution.

Science target magnetotail instabilities
Science Target: Magnetotail Instabilities during March 1995.

Understanding fundamental processes of magnetotail instability and explosive energy transport.

  • Does the substorm initiatiate in near-Earth plasmasheet, or with mid-tail reconnection?

  • Continent scale real-time wavelet based substorm onset Pi2 timing (e.g., Nose et al., 1999) and magnetic bay substorm current wedge FAC location from ground magnetometers.

  • Solve long-standing problem of understanding explosive inwards energy transport from magnetotail.

  • Results of fundamental plasmaphysical and astrophysical relevance.

Science target magnetotail instabilities1
Science Target: Magnetotail Instabilities during March 1995.

H and D bays locate FAC elements.

Pi2 waves time substorm onset (e.g., Nose et al., 1999).

Optics denotes arc morphology.