IISSaM 2013. Developing a Strong “Backstory” for Your SoTL Project. Dr. Lauren Scharff United States Air Force Academy.
Dr. Lauren Scharff
United States Air Force Academy
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the U. S. Air Force, Department of Defense, or the U. S. Govt.
“Research on learning clearly demonstrates that learning is not one thing, but many. The learning associated with developing a skill is different from the learning associated with understanding and remembering information, which in turn is different from thinking critically and creatively, solving problems, making decisions, or change paradigms in the light of evidence. Differing outcomes involve different ways of learning and teaching strategies.”
by James R. Davis, & Bridget D. Arend, with L. Dee Fink, 2012
How we learn behaviors:
Helping students learn content
Helping students understand
Helping students learn skills
Helping students retain and use what they’ve learned in other settings
Helping students help themselves
Motivating students to learn
What to do about individual differences in learning
“In order to be more effective at anything, it helps to understand the underlying mechanisms.”
A Memory test to get you started…
NOW write down the words.
1. Longer term memory Encoding failure starts with not paying attention
Keeps in STM
unconscious incompetence — we don’t know we don’t know
conscious incompetence — we know we don’t know
conscious competence — we know we know
unconscious competence — second nature
“An average of 75,000 hours means spending 8 hours per day, 365 days per year, for more than 25 years to become an accomplished chess player! That’s how long it takes to develop the necessary skills for recognizing patterns of chess pieces, understanding their implications for future outcomes, and making the best moves. No wonder spending just a few hours on a homework problem, or even a semester reading a textbook often fails to provide the level of understanding that we often desire.” Wirth & Perkins, 2008
“The single best measure of mastery in a subject is time spent intellectually engaged with that particular subject. For example, chess masters spend roughly 50,000 to 100,000 hours studying chess to reach the “expert” level of playing chess (Simon and Chase 1973).”
Wirth & Perkins, 2008
Expert’s knowledge structure
Novice’s knowledge structure
So, you better be motivated or you probably won’t learn much.
A brief overview of several
Think about why YOU are HERE…
Motivation can be influenced by internal value given to the goal as well as external rewards.
“Depending on what percentage of the course grade the JiTT component counts, it will drive students who are concerned about good grades. Many students will rise to the work load demanded, even if they resent it.”Cookman, Mandel, and Lyons(1999)
Perceived value of the assignment can be just as powerful a motivator as lots of points, and is also at least partially under an instructor’s control.
Scharff, Rolf, Novoty, & Lee (2011)
People tend to be more motivated to complete tasks over which they have some choice and control.
Are students motivated to deeply learn the material or to look good by seeming to know the material?
*fixed versus incremental theories of intelligence - Dweck & Leggett (1983)
People are often more motivated to try tasks they believe they are capable of accomplishing.
Many students want to be (be seen as) socially responsible and to build relationships with classmates.
Aspects of motivation also link to metacognition.
One way to help students appreciate and benefit from the different learning experiences is to help them develop their metacognitive skills – for most students, it won’t happen spontaneously.
Dedicating time in the classroom for students to reflect on their own metacognition is one approach to increase this self-awareness and communicate the value of metacognition to the students.
Butler, A. & Roediger, H. (2008). Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Memory and Cognition. 36(3), 604-616.
Davis, J., Arend, B. & Fink, L. D. (2012). Facilitating Seven Ways of Learning: A Resource for More Purposeful, Effective, and Enjoyable College Teaching. Stylus Publishing
Dweck, C. & Leggett, E. (1983). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
Karpicke, J. & Roediger, H. (2008). The critical importance of retrieval for learning. Science. 319, 966-968.
Mayer, R. & Moreno, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 43-52.
McKeachie , W., & Svinicki, M. (2010). McKeachie's Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers (14th edition ed.). Florence: Cengage Learning, Inc.