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Project Management

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  1. Project Management Jane Wiggins

  2. BIFM Syllabus • Role of the Project Manager • Typical FM Projects • Development of project briefs • Project programmes • Project budgets • Project teams • Handover • Evaluation

  3. Context • What is a project? • When is a project a project and not just the normal workload of a FM?

  4. What is a Project? • A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled. • need - change - plan • Projects need sponsors, owners, partners and of course a manager!

  5. Definitions of a Project • “a specific job, with a discrete beginning and end, which produces predetermined results” • “A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled” • “A series of related activities aimed at achieving the same ultimate objective, with minimum risk” • “A discrete piece of work which has a clear start and finish and provides specific benefits for accepted costs in an agreed time-scale”

  6. Features of a project • One off / non standard • People from different disciplines • Team for the single project • Productivity hard to measure • Lines of authority not easy to define • Many views / perceptions of success

  7. Factors to consider • Project management culture • Key features of project management • Project life cycle • Scope of a project • Project planning • Project control • Project team • Role of individuals • Project manager • Project Failure • Contractual Procedures

  8. Characteristics • a project is goal orientated • constraints relating to time and resources • outputs can be measured • one-off change as a result of the project

  9. The Elements • An objective – a definable end result • Complexity – many different tasks needed • Uniqueness – usually a ‘one-off’ • Uncertainty – element of risk • Temporary - defined beginning and end • Life cycle - resource requirements change during project

  10. Role of the Project Manager

  11. Role of the Project Manager • Objectives • Responsibilities • Target setting • Risk analysis • Planning • Control • Monitor • Management

  12. Technical Competence • product knowledge • ability to understand the overall process • know how to avoid and mitigate problems • know how to effectively overcome and rectify errors • know when to seek expert advice • awareness of new technology and methods

  13. Project Initiation Terms of Reference Steering Committee Project Finance / Budget Change control procedures Set up project file / quality standards & procedures Project strategy / Risk Management Study Roles & Responsibilities User involvement Security and privacy aspects Determine methodology Selection of tools to use Team selection criteria External resource requirements Brief the team

  14. Terms of Reference (TOR) • Background • Objectives • Scope • Constraints • Assumptions • Reporting • Deliverables

  15. Background • Puts the project into context • Why do it and why now? • Business benefits

  16. Objectives • Business objectives • Project objectives • SMART

  17. Scope • Business areas • Business processes • Geographical locations • Interfaces • Inclusions & Exclusions use appropriate language for the reader, avoid jargon

  18. Constraints • Limitations on time • Cashflow • Milestones • Legislation • Technology • Location • Landlord • Experience

  19. Assumptions • Areas of uncertainty to be sorted out • Information required for final TOR • Link to risks • check with sponsor, end user, client, stakeholders, partners.

  20. Reporting • Progress • Escalation • Format • Frequency • Who

  21. Deliverables • “physical outcome of a piece of work” • can check work done and quality of work • identify the major deliverables with when and who • state the quality required • confirm who confirms acceptance

  22. Project programmes

  23. Culture • Geography – affects deliveries, resources, climate etc • Finance – fluctuations in price, interest rates, exchange rates • Politics – unstable and changing governments • Local Laws – Labour Laws, holidays, wages, health and safety etc • National culture – Language, Customs, expectations, prejudices • Needs of User – needs are not always apparent and may change

  24. Objective for sponsor • Their project expectations • Achieving the desired objectives • Delivery at the right time • At an economic price – value for money

  25. Key features • Clearly defined objectives • Constraints of time, cost and work (quality) • Finite Life cycle – start & finish • An element of risk and innovation • Cutting across organisation boundaries • Using transient resources – changing & range of skills • Operating within defined funding limits - budget

  26. Project Life Cycle • CONCEPTION • INITIATION • IMPLEMENTATION • CLOSURE • EVALUATION

  27. Scoping a Project • The process of scoping a project involves seeking clarity of the AIMS AND OBJECTIVES of the project • Define the project objectives • Define the scope • Define the strategy

  28. Define the Project Objectives • Provide overall direction for the project • Help staff focus on the rationale of the project and its expected results • Provides a definition of the end point which can be used to monitor progress • The objectives must be clear and can be expressed in terms of : • Purpose • End result • Success criteria

  29. Define the Scope This defines the exact range of responsibilities taken on by project management, and will set boundaries as to: • a) what the project will do • b) what it will not do • c) who is responsible for what

  30. Project specification The scope will be formalised in the project specification and involves defining and identifying : • The parts of the organisation affected by the project • The time period involved • The business process involved • The resources to be used • Responsibilities of the contractor(s)

  31. Define the Strategy • Objectives • Phases • Milestones

  32. Project Planning • Realistic • Achievable • Flexible • Contingency • Best available information • Critical events • Targets

  33. Project Planning • Operational research techniques • Gantt (Bar Chart) Programmes •  Network Analysis •  Precedence Diagrams •  Linear Programming •  Computer Modelling • Useful tools

  34. Project budgets

  35. Project Budgets Business Case Estimates Tender Negotiation Contract / POs Approvals Cash flow progress payments fiscal periods accruals / prepayments Contingencies Fees Preliminaries Retention Penalities Performance Bonds VAT Capital allowances

  36. Project Control • Purpose of control? • Proactive • Reactive • Control Systems • Progress and cost control • Quality control • Change control

  37. Controlling Projects “Control is the process of evaluating a situation, and assessing it’s impact and taking action in response to that situation”

  38. Project Control • Know where you are • Know why you are there • Know where you are going

  39. Quality • Quality Assurance - process for delivery of quality • Quality Control - end product and measure of achievement

  40. Project Quality Control • Team members must be continually aware of quality requirements • Employ firms operating ISO 9000 series QA • Clarity in specifications • Careful selection of Consultants & Contractors • Regular testing & monitoring of works • Establish standards at an early date • Don’t compromise on desired quality

  41. Project Control • TIME • COST • QUALITY • the systems to monitor these need to be implemented at the earliest possible stage in the process

  42. Project Control • Value for money • Effective • Efficent • Economic

  43. Project Cost Control • VALUE MANAGEMENT • Control varied and extra work • Pre-value all extras • Avoid claims situations and disputes • Ensure Orders and Contracts are clear and unambiguous • Regular “prediction” of final costs

  44. Progress and Cost Control

  45. A control review • Where we are? • Why are we there? • What is the impact? • What needs to be done? Beware of responses to the checks... • “so good, so far” • “we shall not be moved” • see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”

  46. Change control • Change control is intended to enable change • Not prevent or limit change • but not all changes are necessary or valid • Log to audit requests, acceptance, cost and rejections • Time consuming • Costly

  47. Change Control • Log each change request • Establish justification in business terms • Assess impact • within scope - PM to deal • outside scope - Sponsor / Owner • Decide on action - accept or reject • Communicate decision

  48. Change Management Theories • Lewin’s unfreeze, change, refreeze • equilibrium between force fields • Culture of organisation • Planned or emergent • Incremental or radical • Simple or transformational • Kotter’s 8 Steps of change

  49. Project teams