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Project Management. Jane Wiggins. BIFM Syllabus. Role of the Project Manager Typical FM Projects Development of project briefs Project programmes Project budgets Project teams Handover Evaluation. Context. What is a project?

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project management

Project Management

Jane Wiggins

bifm syllabus
BIFM Syllabus
  • Role of the Project Manager
  • Typical FM Projects
  • Development of project briefs
  • Project programmes
  • Project budgets
  • Project teams
  • Handover
  • Evaluation
  • What is a project?
  • When is a project a project and not just the normal workload of a FM?
what is a project
What is a Project?
  • A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled.
  • need - change - plan
  • Projects need sponsors, owners, partners and of course a manager!
definitions of a project
Definitions of a Project
  • “a specific job, with a discrete beginning and end, which produces predetermined results”
  • “A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled”
  • “A series of related activities aimed at achieving the same ultimate objective, with minimum risk”
  • “A discrete piece of work which has a clear start and finish and provides specific benefits for accepted costs in an agreed time-scale”
features of a project
Features of a project
  • One off / non standard
  • People from different disciplines
  • Team for the single project
  • Productivity hard to measure
  • Lines of authority not easy to define
  • Many views / perceptions of success
factors to consider
Factors to consider
  • Project management culture
  • Key features of project management
  • Project life cycle
  • Scope of a project
  • Project planning
  • Project control
  • Project team
  • Role of individuals
  • Project manager
  • Project Failure
  • Contractual Procedures
  • a project is goal orientated
  • constraints relating to time and resources
  • outputs can be measured
  • one-off change as a result of the project
the elements
The Elements
  • An objective – a definable end result
  • Complexity – many different tasks needed
  • Uniqueness – usually a ‘one-off’
  • Uncertainty – element of risk
  • Temporary - defined beginning and end
  • Life cycle - resource requirements change during project
role of the project manager11
Role of the Project Manager
  • Objectives
  • Responsibilities
    • Target setting
    • Risk analysis
    • Planning
    • Control
    • Monitor
    • Management
technical competence
Technical Competence
  • product knowledge
  • ability to understand the overall process
  • know how to avoid and mitigate problems
  • know how to effectively overcome and rectify errors
  • know when to seek expert advice
  • awareness of new technology and methods
project initiation
Project Initiation

Terms of Reference

Steering Committee

Project Finance / Budget

Change control procedures

Set up project file / quality standards & procedures

Project strategy / Risk Management Study

Roles & Responsibilities

User involvement

Security and privacy aspects

Determine methodology

Selection of tools to use

Team selection criteria

External resource requirements

Brief the team

terms of reference tor
Terms of Reference (TOR)
  • Background
  • Objectives
  • Scope
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions
  • Reporting
  • Deliverables
  • Puts the project into context
  • Why do it and why now?
  • Business benefits
  • Business objectives
  • Project objectives
  • Business areas
  • Business processes
  • Geographical locations
  • Interfaces
  • Inclusions & Exclusions

use appropriate language for the reader, avoid jargon

  • Limitations on time
  • Cashflow
  • Milestones
  • Legislation
  • Technology
  • Location
  • Landlord
  • Experience
  • Areas of uncertainty to be sorted out
  • Information required for final TOR
  • Link to risks
  • check with sponsor, end user, client, stakeholders, partners.
  • Progress
  • Escalation
  • Format
  • Frequency
  • Who
  • “physical outcome of a piece of work”
  • can check work done and quality of work
  • identify the major deliverables with when and who
  • state the quality required
  • confirm who confirms acceptance
  • Geography – affects deliveries, resources, climate etc
  • Finance – fluctuations in price, interest rates, exchange rates
  • Politics – unstable and changing governments
  • Local Laws – Labour Laws, holidays, wages, health and safety etc
  • National culture – Language, Customs, expectations, prejudices
  • Needs of User – needs are not always apparent and may change
objective for sponsor
Objective for sponsor
  • Their project expectations
    • Achieving the desired objectives
    • Delivery at the right time
    • At an economic price – value for money
key features
Key features
  • Clearly defined objectives
  • Constraints of time, cost and work (quality)
  • Finite Life cycle – start & finish
  • An element of risk and innovation
  • Cutting across organisation boundaries
  • Using transient resources – changing & range of skills
  • Operating within defined funding limits - budget
project life cycle
Project Life Cycle
scoping a project
Scoping a Project
  • The process of scoping a project involves seeking clarity of the AIMS AND OBJECTIVES of the project
    • Define the project objectives
    • Define the scope
    • Define the strategy
define the project objectives
Define the Project Objectives
  • Provide overall direction for the project
  • Help staff focus on the rationale of the project and its expected results
  • Provides a definition of the end point which can be used to monitor progress
  • The objectives must be clear and can be expressed in terms of :
    • Purpose
    • End result
    • Success criteria
define the scope
Define the Scope

This defines the exact range of responsibilities taken on by project management, and will set boundaries as to:

  • a) what the project will do
  • b) what it will not do
  • c) who is responsible for what
project specification
Project specification

The scope will be formalised in the project specification and involves defining and identifying :

  • The parts of the organisation affected by the project
  • The time period involved
  • The business process involved
  • The resources to be used
  • Responsibilities of the contractor(s)
define the strategy
Define the Strategy
  • Objectives
  • Phases
  • Milestones
project planning
Project Planning
  • Realistic
  • Achievable
  • Flexible
  • Contingency
  • Best available information
  • Critical events
  • Targets
project planning33
Project Planning
  • Operational research techniques
    • Gantt (Bar Chart) Programmes
    •  Network Analysis
    •  Precedence Diagrams
    •  Linear Programming
    •  Computer Modelling
  • Useful tools
project budgets35
Project Budgets

Business Case




Contract / POs


Cash flow

progress payments

fiscal periods

accruals / prepayments






Performance Bonds


Capital allowances

project control
Project Control
  • Purpose of control?
    • Proactive
    • Reactive
  • Control Systems
    • Progress and cost control
    • Quality control
    • Change control
controlling projects
Controlling Projects

“Control is the process of evaluating a situation, and assessing it’s impact and taking action in response to that situation”

project control38
Project Control
  • Know where you are
  • Know why you are there
  • Know where you are going
  • Quality Assurance - process for delivery of quality
  • Quality Control - end product and measure of achievement
project quality control
Project Quality Control
  • Team members must be continually aware of quality requirements
  • Employ firms operating ISO 9000 series QA
  • Clarity in specifications
  • Careful selection of Consultants & Contractors
  • Regular testing & monitoring of works
  • Establish standards at an early date
  • Don’t compromise on desired quality
project control41
Project Control
  • TIME
  • COST
  • the systems to monitor these need to be implemented at the earliest possible stage in the process
project control43
Project Control
  • Value for money
    • Effective
    • Efficent
    • Economic
project cost control
Project Cost Control
  • Control varied and extra work
  • Pre-value all extras
  • Avoid claims situations and disputes
  • Ensure Orders and Contracts are clear and unambiguous
  • Regular “prediction” of final costs
a control review
A control review
  • Where we are?
  • Why are we there?
  • What is the impact?
  • What needs to be done?

Beware of responses to the checks...

    • “so good, so far”
    • “we shall not be moved”
    • see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”
change control
Change control
  • Change control is intended to enable change
  • Not prevent or limit change
  • but not all changes are necessary or valid
  • Log to audit requests, acceptance, cost and rejections
  • Time consuming
  • Costly
change control48
Change Control
  • Log each change request
  • Establish justification in business terms
  • Assess impact
    • within scope - PM to deal
    • outside scope - Sponsor / Owner
  • Decide on action - accept or reject
  • Communicate decision
change management theories
Change Management Theories
  • Lewin’s unfreeze, change, refreeze
    • equilibrium between force fields
  • Culture of organisation
  • Planned or emergent
  • Incremental or radical
  • Simple or transformational
  • Kotter’s 8 Steps of change
project team
Project Team
  • Cooperation
  • Joint sense of purpose
  • Group identity
  • Assembly of appropriate people
  • Skills
  • Compatible
the role of individuals
The Role of Individuals
  • Client
  • Sponsor
  • Stakeholder
  • Champion
  • Contractor
the project manager
The Project Manager

Qualities of a good Project Manager:

  • technical competence
  • leader - communicator - delegator
  • organiser - planner - co-ordinator
  • personality
  • common sense
  • sense of humour
the fm project team
The FM Project Team

Project manager


Finance / Procurement

Planning Supervisor

User / Client

Designer / Architect

Cost Consultant / QS

M&E Services


Acoustics, Fire, Security, Structural, IT, Access, Ergonomics, AV, Lifts, Equipment, Furniture, Catering, Highways, Asbestos



construction team
Construction Team
  • Project Manager
  • Architect
  • Planning Supervisor - CDM
  • Quantity Surveyor
  • Other Consultants e.g Structural engineer
  • Planning Authorities
  • Building Control
  • Main Contractor
  • Specialist Subcontractors
  • Sale or Letting Agent
performance of team
Performance of Team

Team building




Contact details





Supportive framework

Prompt rectification of issues / show stoppers

Value contribution


Regular contact by PM

typical fm projects58
Typical FM Projects

Minor refurbishment

toilets, reception, offices


New heating / lighting systems

New computer system

Major Capital Works

Lift replacement


Design & Build

New buildings

project briefs
Project Briefs
  • Why?
  • Benefit
  • Problems / issues if no brief?
  • Who develops it?
  • Content
  • Structure
fundamentals of project management
Fundamentals of Project Management
  • Project Initiation
  • Project Planning
  • Project Control
  • Successful Project Ingredients
key elements for success
Key elements for success
  • Success criteria agreed
  • TOR clear and understood
  • Effective Planning and control
  • Adequate resources
  • Continuous Customer Involvement
  • Roles & Responsibilities Understood
  • Partnership Concept Adopted
risk management
Risk Management
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Analysis
    • Probability x Impact
  • Risk Containment
    • Preventative x Contingent
business risk
Business Risk
  • What are the risks of failure?
    • Consider the impact on
      • Organisation
      • People
      • Image
      • Performance / Profit
      • Other projects
  • Risk Forum
  • Brainstorm
      • Actions
symptoms of risk outcomes
Symptoms of Risk Outcomes
  • Late delivery
  • Over budget
  • Contain errors or omissions
  • Not work or function as expected
  • Difficult to operate or use
  • Costly to support, maintain or enhance
  • May never be implementated
managing the risks
Managing the Risks
  • Quantify the costs of failure
  • Quantify the cost of mitigation
  • Quantify the cost of management
  • Balance - cost / benefit analysis
  • Is it worth it?
risk monitoring
Risk Monitoring
  • An ongoing feature of project management
  • Need to manage the show stoppers
  • Identify frequency, depth, responsibility and accountability of monitoring tasks
  • Agenda item for every project review meeting
roles responsibilities
Roles & Responsibilities
  • Project Sponsor
  • Project Owner
  • Project Manager
  • Project Partnership
    • contractors, users, advisors,
project sponsor
Project Sponsor
  • Show public commitment
  • Promotes / sells project to organisation
  • Ensures objectives & scope are clear / valid
  • Supports the Project Manager
  • Ensures commitment to the project plan
  • Reviews progress against objectives
  • Acts as Project Champion
project sponsor70
Project Sponsor
  • What do their “own” in the project?
  • Quality Plan
  • Business Risk
  • Budget
  • Decision making progress
  • Realising the project business benefits
issues facing the sponsor
Issues facing the Sponsor
  • Establish / maintain priorities
  • Ensure suitable & stable environment
  • Deal with the politics / adversaries
  • Time management
  • Resources
  • Conflict with Project Manager
  • Balance of Time / Quality / Cost
project manager
Project Manager
  • Maintains and controls the project
  • Directs and co-ordinates all project activities and tasks
  • Maintains realistic project plans
  • Day to day decision maker
  • Manage assigned resources
  • Provide control & cost information
project support
Project Support
  • Software
    • eg MS Project, Project Commander
  • General admin support
    • minutes, meetings, programme charts, contacts
  • Assurance for sponsors
  • Maintain project history
  • Ensure consistent reporting
  • Keep to review dates
partnership in a project
Partnership in a Project
  • Common goals
  • Cultural fit
  • Commitment
  • Team work
  • Shared risk
  • Responsibility and accountability

assume that everyone wants success!

quality plan
Quality Plan
  • Used typically in large projects or projects over 6 months duration
  • Definition
  • A document created and maintained by the Project Manager which describes the project and measures to be taken to ensure project delivers a quality project
quality plan76
Quality Plan
  • TOR
  • Risk Summary
  • Organisation
  • Structure
  • Quality targets
  • Plan and review dates
  • Change control
  • Training
  • Communications
project stages
Project Stages
  • Customer Involvement
  • Study before solutions
  • Two levels of planning
  • Continuous improvement
  • Business review points

“Think before you act or commit”

  • Problem saving system
  • Each phase has an output
  • Can be applied to all problems / projects both small and large
  • Three basic steps per phase which work for most projects / problems
  • Different tools can be used in each step/phase


Multivoting selection grid

Impact analysis

Problem statement


Data-gathering plan



Pareto analysis

Fishbone diagram


Innovation transfer

Cost benefit analysis

Force-field analysis

Process description


Action plan

focus stage
Focus Stage
  • Identify the project
  • Clarify background
  • Investigate customer objectives
  • Initial risk analysis
  • Agree roles & responsibilities
  • Create & agree quality plan
  • Plan next stage in detail, rest in outline
analysis stage
Analysis Stage
  • In depth examination of AS IS
  • Detailed requirements of TO BE
  • Detailed cost benefit analysis
  • Confirm project approach
  • Plan next stage & update outline
  • Obtain approval to proceed
develop stage
Develop Stage
  • Confirm requirements
  • Negotiation
  • Design solution
  • Build
  • Internal test
  • Plan next stage
  • Obtain approval to continue
execute stage
Execute Stage
  • Prepare site
  • Install equipment
  • Training
  • Implement product of the project
  • Gain acceptance / sign - off
  • Review project

beware of expectations / staff awareness

other methodologies
Other methodologies?
  • One approach does not suit all projects
  • Tune the method to suit
  • Use more than one method
  • FADE could be applied to each stage or across whole project
estimating techniques
Estimating Techniques
  • Guessing
  • Experience (but must be recent and relevant)
  • Work break down structures - bottom up
  • Standard task matrix
  • Work distribution models - top down
  • Delphi
project planning89
Project Planning
  • Planning Steps
  • Planning Techniques
  • Validating a Plan
what is planning
What is Planning?
  • Action taken now to arrange future events to bring about desired conclusion
  • Organising what is to be done, by whom, and when to achieve success
  • A positive step to control future events
benefits of planning
Benefits of Planning
  • Consider alternative approaches and potential pitfalls
  • See at outset if chance of succeeding
  • Organise in advance resources required later
  • Communicate to others what is about to take place, and what their part / role is
  • Get agreement now on the subsequent involvement of others
  • Establish a basis against which to plot progress
why does planning not always happen
Why does planning not always happen?
  • Takes time away from doing
  • Involves sticking neck out
  • Difficult to produce plans to accurately predict future
  • but remember time spent planning is saved in future actions
  • plan is basis for future action which can be modified if necessary
planning steps
Planning Steps
  • Agree Terms of Reference (Quality Plan)
  • Identify work and effort
  • Identify dependencies
  • Schedule the work (eg Gantt chart)
  • Plan for control
criteria for a good plan
Criteria for a good Plan
  • All activities present
  • Resources shown
  • Dependencies clear
  • Reviews shown
  • Communicative
  • Contingency considered and visible
  • Easy to use and update
planning techniques
Planning techniques
  • Network analysis
    • job sequence, scheduling, time analysis
  • PERT
    • US Navy Special Projects - saved 2 years on Polaris project
  • CPM
    • Dupont used Critical Path Analysis - saved $1 million in first year of using this technique
pre handover


Testing / Witnessing / Commissioning

Certification of compliance


As Built drawings

Health & Safety File

Practical Completion

Building Logbook

Snagging List

Defects Period

Warranties / Guarantees

Post project defect / fault reporting procedure

practical completion
Practical Completion


  • Insurance of site / building / equipment
  • Maintenance responsibility
  • Site security
  • Health and Safety compliance
  • Commencement of defects liabilities
  • Certification of compliance
the handover
The Handover


Testing / Witnessing / Commissioning

Certification of compliance


Health & Safety File

Practical Completion

Building Logbook



Warranties / Guarantees

Post project defect / fault reporting procedure

project evaluation
Project Evaluation
  • Purpose?
  • When?
  • Who?
  • Methods
project review methods
Project Review Methods
  • Post Implementation Analysis - PIA
  • Post Occupation Evaluation - POA
  • Customer Satisfaction Survey
  • Audit
fundamentals of project management103
Fundamentals of Project Management
  • Project Initiation
  • Project Planning
  • Project Control
  • Successful Project Ingredients
key elements for success104
Key elements for success
  • Success criteria agreed
  • TOR clear and understood
  • Effective Planning and control
  • Adequate resources
  • Continuous Customer Involvement
  • Roles & Responsibilities Understood
  • Partnership Concept Adopted
post occupation evaluation why do a poe
Post Occupation Evaluation Why do a POE?
  • assess performance of building
  • are occupiers satisfied
  • any evidence of sick building syndrome
  • affects of building on staff productivity
  • does building support occupants in terms of functional performance
  • cultural change / purpose of project achieved?
  • management or personnel problems?
poe how do you do it
POE - How do you do it?
  • Standard questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Observations
  • Physical monitoring
  • Focus groups
  • Energy consumption data
  • Benchmarking
typical areas of evaluation
Typical areas of evaluation
  • Product
    • fitness for purpose, specification, compliance
  • Performance
    • users needs, goals, expectations
  • Process
    • performance of FM team, project team, relationship of team members, financial outcome
types of poe tools
Types of POE tools
  • Overall Liking Score
  • BRE project building appraisal
  • BRE/DEGW new project
  • OPI Toolkit
  • Occupational Health staff questionnaire
barriers to undertaking a poe
Barriers to undertaking a POE
  • Terms of contract - what is completion?
  • Commencement of defects liability period - attitudes to defects?
  • Professional indemnity insurance
  • Cost - who pays?
  • Time and effort to conduct
  • Focused on the past
  • Expectations of staff
benefits of poe
Benefits of POE
  • Client
    • Feedback from success and failure
    • Assurance to project sponsors that investment has been well spent - problem solved, change delivered etc
    • Assurance to end user that their views are valued and considered
  • Designer
    • Improve future designs
    • Fine tuning to match reality and the brief more closely
benefits of poe to fm
Benefits of POE to FM
  • Identification and solution of issues/problems
  • Demonstrates proactive FM
  • Responsive to users issues
  • Active involvement of users in evaluation process
  • Better attitude of users to building and FM team
  • Informed decision making
  • Better understanding of design issues and performance outcomes arising from budget cuts and omissions
impact future benefits
Impact / future benefits
  • Facility adaptation easier to manage
  • Cost savings in life cycle of building
  • Accountability of professionals/owners in building performance
  • Long term improvements
  • Improved databases, standards
  • Improved measurement of building performance
overcoming the barriers
Overcoming the barriers
  • Trust between the parties
  • Understanding the insurance issues
  • Better no fault agreements
  • Professional resolution of conflict
  • Recognition of importance and value of POE to industry (construction, architecture and FM
project failure reasons
Project Failure Reasons
  • Project objectives not clearly specified
  •  Inexperienced project manager
  •  Too few members of the project team
  •  Inability of project team members
  •  Technology was too new – (over ambitious)
  •  Lack of awareness of project management techniques
  •  Inability to scope changes which occur during project
project failure continued
Project Failure - continued
  • Inaccurate or restricted information
  • Poor performance of suppliers
  •  The project may be misconceived from the outset.
  •  Inadequate and late information provided to contractors/suppliers
  •  Client delays making decisions or requests late changes
  •  Inadequate communications and control
contract procedures
Contract Procedures
  • What are your procedures?
  • Arbitration
  • Disputes
  • Settlements
bifm syllabus117
BIFM Syllabus
  • Role of the Project Manager
  • Typical FM Projects
  • Development of project briefs
  • Project programmes
  • Project budgets
  • Project teams
  • Handover
  • Evaluation