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Project Management

Project Management. Jane Wiggins. BIFM Syllabus. Role of the Project Manager Typical FM Projects Development of project briefs Project programmes Project budgets Project teams Handover Evaluation. Context. What is a project?

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Project Management

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  1. Project Management Jane Wiggins

  2. BIFM Syllabus • Role of the Project Manager • Typical FM Projects • Development of project briefs • Project programmes • Project budgets • Project teams • Handover • Evaluation

  3. Context • What is a project? • When is a project a project and not just the normal workload of a FM?

  4. What is a Project? • A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled. • need - change - plan • Projects need sponsors, owners, partners and of course a manager!

  5. Definitions of a Project • “a specific job, with a discrete beginning and end, which produces predetermined results” • “A significant, non-routine change, with defined objectives, a clear start/end and which requires an investment decision. It needs to be planned, monitored and controlled” • “A series of related activities aimed at achieving the same ultimate objective, with minimum risk” • “A discrete piece of work which has a clear start and finish and provides specific benefits for accepted costs in an agreed time-scale”

  6. Features of a project • One off / non standard • People from different disciplines • Team for the single project • Productivity hard to measure • Lines of authority not easy to define • Many views / perceptions of success

  7. Factors to consider • Project management culture • Key features of project management • Project life cycle • Scope of a project • Project planning • Project control • Project team • Role of individuals • Project manager • Project Failure • Contractual Procedures

  8. Characteristics • a project is goal orientated • constraints relating to time and resources • outputs can be measured • one-off change as a result of the project

  9. The Elements • An objective – a definable end result • Complexity – many different tasks needed • Uniqueness – usually a ‘one-off’ • Uncertainty – element of risk • Temporary - defined beginning and end • Life cycle - resource requirements change during project

  10. Role of the Project Manager

  11. Role of the Project Manager • Objectives • Responsibilities • Target setting • Risk analysis • Planning • Control • Monitor • Management

  12. Technical Competence • product knowledge • ability to understand the overall process • know how to avoid and mitigate problems • know how to effectively overcome and rectify errors • know when to seek expert advice • awareness of new technology and methods

  13. Project Initiation Terms of Reference Steering Committee Project Finance / Budget Change control procedures Set up project file / quality standards & procedures Project strategy / Risk Management Study Roles & Responsibilities User involvement Security and privacy aspects Determine methodology Selection of tools to use Team selection criteria External resource requirements Brief the team

  14. Terms of Reference (TOR) • Background • Objectives • Scope • Constraints • Assumptions • Reporting • Deliverables

  15. Background • Puts the project into context • Why do it and why now? • Business benefits

  16. Objectives • Business objectives • Project objectives • SMART

  17. Scope • Business areas • Business processes • Geographical locations • Interfaces • Inclusions & Exclusions use appropriate language for the reader, avoid jargon

  18. Constraints • Limitations on time • Cashflow • Milestones • Legislation • Technology • Location • Landlord • Experience

  19. Assumptions • Areas of uncertainty to be sorted out • Information required for final TOR • Link to risks • check with sponsor, end user, client, stakeholders, partners.

  20. Reporting • Progress • Escalation • Format • Frequency • Who

  21. Deliverables • “physical outcome of a piece of work” • can check work done and quality of work • identify the major deliverables with when and who • state the quality required • confirm who confirms acceptance

  22. Project programmes

  23. Culture • Geography – affects deliveries, resources, climate etc • Finance – fluctuations in price, interest rates, exchange rates • Politics – unstable and changing governments • Local Laws – Labour Laws, holidays, wages, health and safety etc • National culture – Language, Customs, expectations, prejudices • Needs of User – needs are not always apparent and may change

  24. Objective for sponsor • Their project expectations • Achieving the desired objectives • Delivery at the right time • At an economic price – value for money

  25. Key features • Clearly defined objectives • Constraints of time, cost and work (quality) • Finite Life cycle – start & finish • An element of risk and innovation • Cutting across organisation boundaries • Using transient resources – changing & range of skills • Operating within defined funding limits - budget


  27. Scoping a Project • The process of scoping a project involves seeking clarity of the AIMS AND OBJECTIVES of the project • Define the project objectives • Define the scope • Define the strategy

  28. Define the Project Objectives • Provide overall direction for the project • Help staff focus on the rationale of the project and its expected results • Provides a definition of the end point which can be used to monitor progress • The objectives must be clear and can be expressed in terms of : • Purpose • End result • Success criteria

  29. Define the Scope This defines the exact range of responsibilities taken on by project management, and will set boundaries as to: • a) what the project will do • b) what it will not do • c) who is responsible for what

  30. Project specification The scope will be formalised in the project specification and involves defining and identifying : • The parts of the organisation affected by the project • The time period involved • The business process involved • The resources to be used • Responsibilities of the contractor(s)

  31. Define the Strategy • Objectives • Phases • Milestones

  32. Project Planning • Realistic • Achievable • Flexible • Contingency • Best available information • Critical events • Targets

  33. Project Planning • Operational research techniques • Gantt (Bar Chart) Programmes •  Network Analysis •  Precedence Diagrams •  Linear Programming •  Computer Modelling • Useful tools

  34. Project budgets

  35. Project Budgets Business Case Estimates Tender Negotiation Contract / POs Approvals Cash flow progress payments fiscal periods accruals / prepayments Contingencies Fees Preliminaries Retention Penalities Performance Bonds VAT Capital allowances

  36. Project Control • Purpose of control? • Proactive • Reactive • Control Systems • Progress and cost control • Quality control • Change control

  37. Controlling Projects “Control is the process of evaluating a situation, and assessing it’s impact and taking action in response to that situation”

  38. Project Control • Know where you are • Know why you are there • Know where you are going

  39. Quality • Quality Assurance - process for delivery of quality • Quality Control - end product and measure of achievement

  40. Project Quality Control • Team members must be continually aware of quality requirements • Employ firms operating ISO 9000 series QA • Clarity in specifications • Careful selection of Consultants & Contractors • Regular testing & monitoring of works • Establish standards at an early date • Don’t compromise on desired quality

  41. Project Control • TIME • COST • QUALITY • the systems to monitor these need to be implemented at the earliest possible stage in the process

  42. Project Control • Value for money • Effective • Efficent • Economic

  43. Project Cost Control • VALUE MANAGEMENT • Control varied and extra work • Pre-value all extras • Avoid claims situations and disputes • Ensure Orders and Contracts are clear and unambiguous • Regular “prediction” of final costs

  44. Progress and Cost Control

  45. A control review • Where we are? • Why are we there? • What is the impact? • What needs to be done? Beware of responses to the checks... • “so good, so far” • “we shall not be moved” • see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”

  46. Change control • Change control is intended to enable change • Not prevent or limit change • but not all changes are necessary or valid • Log to audit requests, acceptance, cost and rejections • Time consuming • Costly

  47. Change Control • Log each change request • Establish justification in business terms • Assess impact • within scope - PM to deal • outside scope - Sponsor / Owner • Decide on action - accept or reject • Communicate decision

  48. Change Management Theories • Lewin’s unfreeze, change, refreeze • equilibrium between force fields • Culture of organisation • Planned or emergent • Incremental or radical • Simple or transformational • Kotter’s 8 Steps of change

  49. Project teams

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