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AKS 41: The Muslim World. Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals Chapter 18 – Pages 507-521. Ottoman Empire: Osman (Othman) (1300-1326). Ottoman Empire named for him Established small Muslim state in Anatolia. Ottoman Empire: Mehmed II (1444-1446, 1451-1481). Conquered Constantinople - 1453

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aks 41 the muslim world

AKS 41:The Muslim World

Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals

Chapter 18 – Pages 507-521

ottoman empire osman othman 1300 1326
Ottoman Empire:Osman (Othman) (1300-1326)
  • Ottoman Empire named for him
  • Established small Muslim state in Anatolia
ottoman empire mehmed ii 1444 1446 1451 1481
Ottoman Empire:Mehmed II (1444-1446, 1451-1481)
  • Conquered Constantinople - 1453
  • Opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds
  • Rebuilt city – renamed it Istanbul
ottoman empire selim the grim 1512 1520
Ottoman Empire:Selim the Grim (1512-1520)
  • Mehmed’s grandson
  • Defeated Safavids in 1514 - Battle of Chaldiran
  • Swept into Syria, Palestine, & North Africa
  • Captured Mecca & Medina
  • Finally captured Cairo (intellectual center of Muslim world)
ottoman empire suleyman the lawgiver 1520 1566
*Given title of “Lawgiver” for simplifying system of taxation & reducing government bureaucracyOttoman Empire:Suleyman the Lawgiver (1520-1566)
  • Selim’s son
  • Conquered European city of Belgrade in 1521
  • Military conquest in N. Africa, C. Europe, E. Med.
    • Controlled trade routes in interior
  • Given title of “Lawgiver” for simplifying system of taxation, gov’t reform, and cultural achievements
safavid empire isma il 1501 1524
Safavid Empire:Isma’il (1501-1524)
  • 12 yrs old when he came to power
  • Conquered Persia (modern-day Iran)
  • Took title of “shah,” or king, to celebrate
  • Later lost Battle of Chaldiran to Selim the Grim of the Ottoman Empire
safavid empire tahmasp 1524 1576
Safavid Empire:Tahmasp (1524-1576)
  • Isma’il’s son
  • Adopted use of artillery w/ his military forces
  • Expanded Safavid up to Caucasus Mtns (NE of Turkey)
safavid empire shah abbas 1587 1629
Safavid Empire:Shah Abbas (1587-1629)
  • Reformed military & civilian life
  • Created 2 new armies loyal to him alone to maintain empire
    • One army made of Persians
    • One army recruited from Christian N.
    • Both armies equipped w/ artillery
mughal empire babur 1494 1530
Mughal Empire:Babur (1494-1530)
  • 11 yrs old, inherited kingdom that is now Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
    • Elders took it away & drove him S.
  • Raised army, swept S. into modern-day India – laid foundation for Mughal Empire
mughal empire akbar 1556 1605
“A monarch should ever be intent on conquest, otherwise his neighbors rise in arms against him.” - AkbarMughal Empire:Akbar (1556-1605)
  • AKA “Great One” b/c he added more territory than any other Mughal emperor
    • Unified land of at least 100 million people
  • Equipped army w/ heavy artillery
  • turned enemies into allies
mughal empire aurangzeb 1658 1707
Mughal Empire:Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
  • Executed older brother, put father (Shah Jahan) in prison
  • Master military strategist & aggressive empire builder
  • Expanded Mughal holdings to their greatest size, but power weakened during his reign
ottoman empire religion
Ottoman Empire:Religion
  • Islam
  • Granted freedom of worship to other Christian communities (Christians & Jews)
  • Allowed each religious community (millet) to follow its own religious laws & practices
    • Head of millets reported to the sultan
    • This kept conflict among ppl of the various religions to a min.
ottoman empire law
Ottoman Empire:Law
  • Followed Islamic law (Sharia)
  • Suleyman created a law code to handle criminal & civil actions
ottoman empire the arts
Ottoman Empire:The Arts
  • Pop. subjects – poetry, hist., geog., astronomy, math, architecture
  • Sinan, an architect, built Mosque of Suleyman
  • Art and lit. flourished – similar to Euro. Renaissance
  • Looked to Persia & Arabia for models
    • Combined w/ Turkish style (cultural blending)
safavid empire religion
Safavid Empire:Religion
  • Tolerant of other religions
  • Abbas brought members of Christian religious orders into the empire
    • Result: Europeans moved in; industry, trade, & art exchanges grew
safavid empire law
Safavid Empire:Law
  • Abbas reformed gov’t
  • Punished corruption severely
  • Promoted only officials who proved competence & loyalty
  • Hired foreigners from neighboring countries to fill positions in gov’t
safavid empire the arts
Safavid Empire:The Arts
  • Esfahan, new capital, built – beautiful design
  • Abbas brought Chinese artisans to work w/ Safavid artists to produce metalwork, mini paintings, calligraphy, glasswork, tile work, & pottery
  • Most Important: Persian carpets
    • Demand from W turned it into an industry
  • Cultural blending was everywhere
mughal empire religion
Mughal Empire:Religion
  • Akbar was a Muslim – defended religious freedom
  • Proved tolerance by marrying 2 Hindus, a Christian, & a Muslim & allowed his wives to practice their faith in the palace
  • Abolished tax on Hindu pilgrims & non-Muslims
mughal empire law
Mughal Empire:Law
  • Governed through bureaucracy
  • Natives & foreigners could hold high office
  • Tax policy successful (similar to U.S.)
  • Land policies had mixed results
mughal empire the arts
Mughal Empire:The Arts
  • Cultural blending common
  • Arts flourished, esp. in form of book illus. (mini.)
  • Hindu lit. – Ramayana (Indian poem)
  • Akbar architecture – unique style
  • Shah Jahan – Taj Mahal
    • In memory of his wife
the decline of the mughal empire
The Decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The Taj Mahal is the best example of Mughal architecture – a blending of Hindu, Persian, Turkish and Islamic styles.
  • It was built by Akbar’s great grandson, Shah Jahan, as a mausoleum for his favorite wife, Mumataz Mahal.
While the Taj Mahal is loved for its beauty and romantic story, the Indian people paid high taxes and suffered while their rulers lived extravagantly.
the decline of the mughal empire1
The Decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The Mughal Empire declined during the reign of Aurangzeb (Shah Jahan’s son), who revoked all freedoms given to non-Muslims under Akbar in an attempt to purge India of non-Islamic influences.
the decline of the mughal empire2
The Decline of the Mughal Empire
  • At the end of Aurangezb’s reign, European traders began to take an interest in gaining power in India. In 1661, Aurangezb gave the English traders in India the city of Bombay, the start of English dominance in India.