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Chapter 14. Translation. 18 and 20 October, 2004. Overview. Translation uses the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to specify protein sequence. Each ORF specifies a polypeptide.

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Translation

18 and 20 October, 2004

overview
Overview
  • Translation uses the nucleotide sequence of mRNA to specify protein sequence.
  • Each ORF specifies a polypeptide.
  • Ribosome components and / or tRNAs recognize structures and sequences near the 5’ end of the transcript to identify the correct start codon.
  • tRNAs are highly modified short RNAs that are the adaptors between codons and amino acids.
  • Amino acyl tRNA synthetases recognize structural features of tRNAs and charge only the correct tRNA with the correct amino acid.
  • The large and small ribosomal subunits are extremely complex ribonucleoprotein structures that dissociate and reassociate in each round of translation.
  • Peptide synthesis is catalyzed by a ribozyme, and proceeds in the N-to-C terminal direction.
  • The ribosome uses three tRNA binding sites: A, P, and E.
  • tRNAs are delivered to the ribosome by EF-Tu.
  • EF-G GTP hydrolysis along with peptide bond formation drive ribosomal translocation.
  • Translation termination involves release factors and GTP hydrolysis.
  • Translation-dependent RNA stability assures the degradation of damaged messages.
slide31

Aminoacyl-tRNAs bind to the ribosome in a complex with EF-Tu. Ef-Tu release requires correct base pairing.

slide32

The ribosome also uses minor-groove interactions between the 16S rRNA and the codon-anticodon to drive correct base pairing

slide33

Accommodation (rotation) of the tRNA strains the codon-anticodon interaction causing incorrectly paired tRNAs to dissociate.