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Chapter 14. Life’s Transitions: The Aging Process. LIFE’S TRANSITIONS. Old People Are Useless !. AGING: The process of growing old – IT WILL HAPPEN to YOU !!!!. In 1975 Þ 350 million people over 60 years In 2050 Þ 1.1 billion over 60 years PERCEPTION: HOW YOU VIEW PEOPLE OLDER

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chapter 14

Chapter 14

Life’s Transitions: The Aging Process

aging the process of growing old it will happen to you
AGING: The process of growing old – IT WILL HAPPEN to YOU !!!!
  • In 1975 Þ 350 million people over 60 years
  • In 2050 Þ 1.1 billion over 60 years

PERCEPTION:

HOW YOU VIEW

PEOPLE OLDER

THAN YOU

studying aging
Studying Aging

Connotations:

  • A negative psychological shift. Western cultural views are different from others
  • GERONTOLOGY:

The study of aging.

  • GERONTOLOGIST:

One who studies aging.

why study the effects of aging 5 reasons
Why study the effects of aging? (5 reasons):
  • biology of aging (genetic and environmental factors associated with aging)
  • shift in survival and life expectancy has itself driven the inquiry about the social implications
  • medical science documents the diseases of old age and attempts to moderate their effects
aging
Aging
  • health care costs of an older society
  • psychologists attempting to understand the negative attitudes toward the elderly
the changing face of the nation
The Changing Face of the Nation
  • Baby Boomers approaching retirement.
  • Elderly are living longer - combination of modern medicine and lifestyle related factors = age 115 years
changing face of the nation
Changing Face of the Nation
  • higher quality of life - therefore older people are a major social, political and economic factor in society.
  • Changing demographics also reflected in fact that not as many children are being born in first world countries.
types of aging
TYPES OF AGING:

BIOLOGICAL:

  • physical changes with time
  • relative age – condition of organs / body systems
  • arthritis / osteoporosis / accelerate aging process
psychological
PSYCHOLOGICAL

adaptive capacity =

  • coping abilities intelligence
  • individual capabilities
  • self-efficacy
  • biological
  • social changes
social
SOCIAL
  • habits and roles relative to society’s expectations
  • people sharing common interests
  • changes in person's familial, occupational and social roles (retirement, loss of income, etc.)
legal
Legal

chronological age

driving

drinking ( not together !)

voting

old age security

Canada Pension Plan

functional
Functional:
  • how people compare at similar ages……..
  • health
  • capacity
  • activity
  • interests
  • mobility
the aging process a function of three factors
THE AGING PROCESS: a function of three factors:

True aging (also called primary

aging):

  • unavoidable result of chronology that affects all species sooner or later

Disease processes (secondary aging)

  • aging due to diseases, such as trauma, illness, stress, etc.; lifestyle can be classified in this factor (smoking)
the aging process a function of three factors21
THE AGING PROCESS: a function of three factors:

Disuse phenomena

(secondary aging)

  • aging due to the lack of activity (Sedentary Lifestyle)
theories on aging
THEORIES ON AGING

Biological:

  • the wear and tear theory– “ It’s Not the Years.., It’s the Mileage”
  • the human body simply wears out
  • some activities may predispose this condition (running)
theories on aging23
THEORIES ON AGING
  • the cellular theory – limited number of cells / capacity to reproduce / once exhausted body begins to deteriorate / varies from individual to individual
  • the autoimmune theory– declining immune system / loses control attacking body
theories on aging24
THEORIES ON AGING
  • the genetic mutation theory –the older you are the more mutant cells develop/ function differently than intended / dysfunction of body organs + systems
physical changes
Physical Changes

The Skin:

  • (30’s)thinner + loses elasticity /(40’s) lines on the face /
  • (50’s) crow’s feet /(60’s) loses colour + sags / (70’s) age spots etc.

Bones and Joints:

  • constantly changing accumulating and losing minerals (modeling)
  • 30’ and 40’s – net loss of minerals – could lead to osteoporosis
physical changes26
Physical Changes

OSTEOPOROSIS:

  • loss of bone material / bone mass
  • post-menopausal women
  • fractures common
  • very debilitating
  • risk factors: calcium, lack of exercise, lack of estrogen therapy post-menopause
physical changes27
Physical Changes

The Head:

  • features of the head enlarge ( nose, ears, head - skull thickens)

Brain shrinks

The Urinary Tract:

  • urinary incontinence
  • individual
  • treatable - drug therapy
physical changes28
Physical Changes

Heart and Lungs:

  • Resting Heart Rate stays about the same throughout life
  • stroke volume decreases
  • heart muscle deterioration
  • Vital Capacity decreases

(max. inhalation + exhalation)

  • exercise slows these changes
eyesight
Eyesight:
  • 30 years of age – lens harden
  • 40 years of age – lens: yellow and looses transparency
  • Cataracts – (clouding of the lens) / focus on retina / blurred vision / blindness possible
  • glaucoma – ( increased pressure within the eyeball)
  • hardening of the eyeball , impaired vision, eventual blindness
hearing and taste
Hearing and Taste

Hearing:

  • range diminishes / normal and conversational retained

Taste:

  • age 30 – each papilla has 245 taste buds - # diminishes over time
  • age 70 – 88 remaining
  • Smell and Touch:
  • pain and tactile sensors decline
  • sense of smell also declines / may lead to malnutrition ( food lacks appeal)
getting around and body comfort
Getting Around and body Comfort

Mobility:

  • 50% of older Canadians Report some disability related to mobility or agility

Body Comfort:

  • loss of body fat / thinning of epithelium / diminished glandular function
  • body temperature
  • hypothermia / heat stroke / heat exhaustion
mental changes
Mental Changes:

Intelligence:

  • unchanged - except for illness
  • continue to learn and develop (time?)
  • compensate with practical knowledge

Memory:

  • short-term can be memory - affected
  • long-term unchanged
coping with change
Coping with Change

Flexibility vs. Rigidity:

  • LIFE = diverse joys, sorrows, and obstacles –developed coping methods

Depression:

  • most adults continue to lead healthy, fulfilling lives
  • however, depression is the most common
confusion and frustration
Confusion and Frustration

Senility:

  • over-generalization
  • misinterpreted as senility = memory failure / judgment error / disorientation / erratic behaviours…….. (any age!)
alzheimer s disease and other dementias
Alzheimer’s Disease and other Dementias

Dementias – progressive

brain impairments that

interfere with memory

and intellectual

functioning

alzheimer s disease
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

The disease most dreaded by the elderly is

dementia; loss of mental functions in an alert

individual, characterized by group of symptoms :

  • memory loss
  • loss of language functions
  • inability to think abstractly
  • inability to care for oneself
  • personality change
  • emotional instability
  • loss of sense of time
alzheimer s disease37
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • three quarters (75%) dementia’s caused by Alzheimer's disease - chronic, degenerative dementing illness / cause unknown
  • no known cure to stop the progression
  • 6% of people over 65 years have Alzheimer's disease
  • Alzheimer's disease 4th leading cause of death - older adults
  • < seventy conditions can cause dementia
types of dementia
Types of Dementia:
  • Degenerative = Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's.
  • Vascular dementia: cerebral embolisms, blood clots, and infarctions.
  • Traumatic dementia: head injuries.
  • Lesions: tumors, hematomas, and cancers.
  • Toxic dementia: alcohol, poisons.
  • Others: epilepsy, post-traumatic stress disorders, and heat stroke.
theories of aging
THEORIES OF AGING:
  • Brain size & longevity
  • Biological clock determines how long we live.
  • Disposable soma: Allocation of resources - optimal is as little as possible to body repair, and more to other functions.
  • Wear and tear: Accumulated damage leads to breakdown - like a machine!
genes and aging
Genes and Aging
  • Genetic theories: Loss of genetic info. over time = loss of protein to rebuild.
  • Immunological: Breakdown of immune system.
  • Others: Error accumulation, cell loss, nutritive, environment, and brain chemistry.
ageism
AGEISM
  • discrimination
  • stereotyping - generalization of characteristics - + / - without knowing the individual
  • concept of young or old
  • healthy or unhealthy
  • value youth, devalue old age
  • western culture vs. other cultures respectwisdom of elderly
death and dying
DEATH AND DYING
  • THANATOLOGY: the study of death and dying.
  • PSYCHOLOGY: fascination yet denial in western society.
  • people not prepared!
  • DEATH - a process, not a point in time
kubler ross stages of dying 5
KUBLER ROSS: STAGES OF DYING (5):
  • Dying person may experience several intense emotions.

DENIAL:

  • "No, not me!"
  • patient rejects the news
  • initial positive defense mechanism but can become a problem if reinforced by family and friends, leading to poor coping.
anger
ANGER

ANGER:

  • "Why me?"
  • resentment and rage over impending death;
  • may be directed outwards at loved ones.
bargaining
BARGAINING

acknowledgement but……...

try to bargain with

GOD

in this stage e.g

Exchange recovery

promise to be a better

person

depression
DEPRESSION:
  • gradual realization of

consequences

  • difficult time - persons needs to be watched and supported
  • a period of grieving

must be allowed to work through this stage

  • trying to cheer up isn’t an asset now!
acceptance
ACCEPTANCE
  • “I’m scared but, I'm ready."
  • These stages may overlap and repeat.
definition of death
DEFINITION OF DEATH:

Spiritual death:

  • death of meaningful life
  • including responsiveness to others, with activity of the brain and consciousness

ALSO: Unreceptive and unresponsive to painful stimuli - CPR

  • No movement for an hour
  • No breathing for 3 minutes
  • No reflexes
  • Pupils fixed and dilated - flat EEG
  • LIFE SIGNS………………..
definition of death49
DEFINITION OF DEATH:

Traditional legal definition:

  • failure of heart and lungs = functional death.

Modern medicine:

  • brain death = absence of electrical impulse activity in the brain (EEG).

Cellular death:

  • Cells die- e.g., heart, brain, muscle
circumstances of death
CIRCUMSTANCES OF DEATH
  • Death at/or before 50 years of age or younger emotional trauma – unexpected
  • Religious belief = less fear
  • Pain and physical distress.
  • Immediately prior to death there is often an increased in vitality
  • People often "hold on" for a specific life event or person
euthanasia mercy killing
EUTHANASIA: Mercy killing.

INDIRECT INVOLUNTARY

(PASSIVE) -

remove life support

DIRECT VOLUNTARY

administer fatal drug as condition

worsens

DIRECT INVOLUNTARY-

drug once a patient is in a coma.

ILLEGAL / ETHICAL ISSUES

living will
LIVING WILL
  • A statement requesting removal from life support systems……. if the chance for survival is limited….
  • Not accepted in all provinces, e.g. Saskatchewan
death of a loved one
DEATH OF A LOVED ONE:

STAGES OF GRIEF:

  • Bereavement: the experience of loss
  • Grief: intense emotional suffering
  • Mourning: social response e.g.

wearing black, funerals, etc.

stages and experiences when coping with loss
Stages and Experienceswhen coping with loss….
  • Physical: Exhaustion, feeling weighed down - stress. - nutrition, rest, exercise crying very important
  • Emotional: ask or accept help
  • Ask for what you need! Being alone or with friends and family
  • Talk to others with similar experiences - take the time
  • Sadness and crying natural - share feelings.
stages and experiences when coping with loss55
Stages and Experienceswhen coping with loss….
  • Intellectual: Avoid making major life decisions at this time.
  • Process includes anger, resentment, and negative emotions.
  • Work through the feelings - don't avoid or deny them
  • Spiritual: surviving loss and finding meaning to continue, look inside yourself, your faith, and your life!
funerals
FUNERALS:
  • A number of considerations: cost, embalming, burial, and cremation.
  • Rites of passage - A process - saying goodbye very important for closure - found in most cultures
some important terms
SOME IMPORTANT TERMS
  • 1.SIDS: Sudden infant death syndrome - babies 1 to 3 months.

2. STILLBIRTH: Infant is born dead.

3. PERINATAL DEATH: Death occurs within hours or days of birth.

helping someone face death
HELPING SOMEONE FACE DEATH:

Hospices:

  • concept rather than a place
  • provides health care
  • support
  • free of pain
  • death with dignity