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Unit 9 Vocabulary

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  1. Unit 9 Vocabulary

  2. Unit 9 Vocabulary 1. Lamarck- naturalist who proposed that organisms evolved by passing acquired traits onto offspring

  3. Unit 9 Vocabulary 2. acquired characteristics- traits that arise during an organism’s lifetime (not genetic) and are not passed onto offspring

  4. Unit 9 Vocabulary 3. Darwin- naturalist who said that organisms evolve through natural selection 4. inherited characteristics- traits that are passed from parents to offspring through genes; what natural selection acts upon

  5. Unit 9 Vocabulary 5. natural selection-

  6. Unit 9 Vocabulary 6. artificial selection- selective breeding by humans for desirable traits; may produce organisms that are poorly adapted to their environment

  7. Unit 9 Vocabulary 7. evolution- change over time, especially of a species

  8. Unit 9 Vocabulary 8. population- a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place 9. Gene pool- all of the genes found in a population

  9. Unit 9 Vocabulary 10. adaptation- a characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive & reproduce 11. survival of the fittest- the idea that individuals who are well-suited to their environment (fit) are more likely to survive and reproduce than other individuals (natural selection)

  10. Unit 9 Vocabulary 12. mutation- a change in DNA; leads to variation and new traits in a population

  11. Unit 9 Vocabulary 13. morphological adaptation- structural adaptation

  12. Unit 9 Vocabulary 14. physiological adaptation- adaptations of cells & body systems

  13. Unit 9 Vocabulary 15. behavioral adaptation- adaptations of reacting to the environment

  14. Unit 9 Vocabulary 16. theory- an explanation that is supported by a large body of evidence; ex: evolution, cell theory 17. law- describes a set of relationships; ex: law of gravity 18. hypothesis- an educated guess that explains observations; testable

  15. Unit 9 Vocabulary 19. gene frequencies- the proportion of a particular allele in a population 20. evidence for evolution- compares species, helping scientists to understand how species are related and how they originated over time

  16. Unit 9 Vocabulary 20a. comparative anatomy- the relative body features of different species; used to determine how closely or distantly related species are 20b. homologous structures- a feature found in different species that arose in a common ancestor

  17. Unit 9 Vocabulary 20c. comparative embryology- studying the embryos of different species to determine the degree of relationship between species 20d. comparative biochemistry- studying the DNA and other biological molecules of different species to determine the degree of relationship between species

  18. Unit 9 Vocabulary 21. fossils-impressions or casts left behind by a prehistoric organism; provides evidence of the species that have lived on Earth and when they lived

  19. Unit 9 Vocabulary 22. Evolutionary processes: • more offspring are born than can survive • individuals have variations • some individuals reproduce more than others

  20. Unit 9 Vocabulary Sexual Reproduction: 23. recombination- shuffling of genes in new combinations through crossing over or sexual reproduction Crossing Over:

  21. Unit 9 Vocabulary 24. variation- differences in the traits seen in a population

  22. Unit 9 Vocabulary 25. species- a group of organisms of a single type that can reproduce 26. subspecies- a particular variation seen within a species that may, over time, become a different species; ex: Cannis lupus familiaris(the dog) is a subspecies of Cannie lupus (the gray wolf) 27. speciation- the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise

  23. Unit 9 Vocabulary 28. gametic isolation- separation of individuals and their genes based upon how different eggs and sperm refuse to unite due to their identification markers

  24. Unit 9 Vocabulary 29. geographic isolation- separation of individuals and their genes due to physical barriers 30. temporal isolation- separation of individuals and their genes due to mating at different times of the day or year

  25. Unit 9 Vocabulary 31. behavioral isolation- the separation of individuals and their genes based upon difference in their behavior, such as mating habits

  26. Unit 9 Vocabulary 32. habitat isolation- the separation of individuals and their genes based upon how they occupy different habitats and do not encounter each other 33. mechanical isolation- the separation of individuals and their genes based upon how the reproductive parts of the different individuals do not fit together

  27. Unit 9 Vocabulary 34. punctuated equilibrium- model that shows how a lot of evolutionary change takes place in short periods of times that are tied to speciation events; evolution with few transitional forms 35. gradualism- model that shows how large changes in organisms build slowly over time; seen in both the fossil record and geology; evolution with many transitional forms

  28. Unit 9 Vocabulary 36. phylogenetic tree- a branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships between species

  29. Unit 9 Vocabulary 37. random genetic drift- a shift in allele frequencies due to chance

  30. Unit 9 Vocabulary 38. lethal- deadly; 1 or 2 lethal alleles can kill an organism 39. interbreeding- capable of reproducing together