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Chapter 3

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  1. Anatomy of Cells Chapter 3

  2. The cell - • Basic unit of life • 100 trillion in the human body • Variances – size, shape, function, ability to reproduce

  3. Visualization of the cell

  4. Electron microscope

  5. Antarctic mite magnified 1500 times under electron microscope

  6. Fly foot

  7. Size • Micrometers • RBC – 7.5 micrometers • Ova – 150 micrometers • A period mark in the text represents 100 micrometers.

  8. Appearance • Varies • Function • Area of body

  9. Nerve cell:

  10. Cardiac cell

  11. Bone cell

  12. Smooth muscle cell

  13. Epithelial cell

  14. This is done by the examination of the body at autopsy, of tissues removed during surgery, and by analysis of fluids from the body, such as blood or urine, in the clinical pathology laboratory".

  15. "The forensic pathologist's involvement and investigation includes visiting the scene of death. Gathering information about what happened at the time and place of the subject's death, what he or she was doing, and the health of the subject is of vital importance. The forensic examination of the body includes examining the clothing on the body, the body itself, and the internal examination of the organs in the body, which is the autopsy. The autopsy may include microscopic and x-ray examinations of the tissues of the body". The forensic pathologist may call in many others in his search for answers.

  16. Evidence such as fingernail clippings and scrapings in an assault case, swabs for examination for sperm and seminal fluid, hair samples, and fibers on the deceased's clothing and body are sent to a crime laboratory for a criminalist to study. Other evidence such as blood, urine, stomach contents, bile liver, kidney, lungs, brains, nail clippings, and hair are sent to a toxicologist. The Forensic scientist must "determine which injuries were received when the victim was alive (antemortem injuries), which changes occurred after death (decomposition), and which injuries were received after death (postmortem injuries).

  17. See forensic pathology index

  18. Main structures of a “Typical” cell: • Plasma membrane • Cytoplasm – cell substance – cytosol – intracellular fluid • Nucleus

  19. Cell membranes • Variety with variable capabilities • Plasma – sacs, canals – • Thin – 75 angstroms • Composed of lipid, protein, other molecules • Pg. 76 – fluid mosaic model – sheet-like made of fluid for mobility • Chemical bonds hold these molecules together • Selective permeability

  20. Cytoplasm and organelles • Cytoplasm – cytosol and hundreds of organelles – creates a thickening effect • Water + starch • Many /most organelles not identified • Membranous/non-membranous organelles

  21. Endoplasmic reticulum • Endoplasm –cytoplasm toward center of cell • Reticulum – network/wiring • Rows of canals and flat curving sacs throughout cytoplasm • Miniature circulatory system? • Rough – outer surface – ribosomes attached to synthesize proteins • Smooth – synthesize carbs and lipids • Thought to be a transport system

  22. Endoplasmic reticulum

  23. Ribosome

  24. Ribosomes • Thousands in each cell • Some attached to ER – some free • Non-membranous • Two pieces – lg./sm. • Each piece has ribonucleic acid + protein • Ribosomal RNA – rRNA – translates genetic code • Messenger RNA – mRNA – copies DNA code • Transfer RNA – tRNA – places order • Ribosomes make protein

  25. Golgi bodies • Near nucleus • Processes, packages, and transports protein • What is the importance of protein in the body?

  26. Golgi apparatus

  27. lysosomes • Change in size/shape – age thing! • Infancy – tiny • Teen – little larger • Can destroy/digest cells with enzyme production • Leukocytes perform this action

  28. Peroxisomes • Another sac of enzymes • Toxin busters • Kidney/liver commonly

  29. Mitochondria • Two membranes • Inner membrane – adenosine triphosphate ATP • Oxidation reactions occur to produce energy • Power plants of the cell • The busier a cell is – the more mitochondria it contains

  30. Nucleus • Largest of all cell structures • Central location • Contains DNA molecules • Thread-like (chromatin) • Before division DNA coils = break into rods called chromosomes (46) • Nucleus carries code for protein and enzymes for a cell • Nucleolus – inside nucleus – contain rRNA – decides when to divide

  31. Cytoskeleton • Rod-like pieces for support • Muscle-like fibers for movement • Cell fibers look like web-like structure for support

  32. Centrosome • Regulates build up and break down of fibers • Microtubule fibers in a spindle moves chromosomes before cell division • Centrioles – two – right angle to each other before division • Baby centriole is created prior to division

  33. Cell extensions • Project from cell • Flagella, cilia, microvilli • Microvilli – epithelial – hundreds of hairs! Line intestines • Flagella/cilia – differ in size and number • Cilia – shorter, numerous – respiratory sys. • Flagella – longer, single - sperm

  34. Sperm

  35. Microvilli – intestinal tract

  36. Bacterium - flagella

  37. Cilia - paramecium

  38. Cell connections (glue) • Matrix – connected to outside of cell • Integrins – glue to hold in place • Desosomes – spot welds • Gap junctions – channels form glue-heart • Tight junctions – collars hold together cells – intestines • See pg 87 for diagram

  39. Chapter 3 review • Test next class

  40. Article review Why is protein important?

  41. Deficiency