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Chapter 6 The Nature of Work Motivation. Table 6.1 Elements of Work Motivation. Direction of Behavior. Which behaviors does a person choose to perform In an organization?. Level of Effort. How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior?. Level of Persistence.

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Chapter 6 The Nature of Work Motivation


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table 6 1 elements of work motivation
Table 6.1 Elements of Work Motivation

Direction of Behavior

Which behaviors does a

person choose to perform

In an organization?

Level of Effort

How hard does a person

work to perform a

chosen behavior?

Level of Persistence

When faced with obstacles

how hard does a person keep

trying to perform a

chosen behavior successfully?

figure 6 1 the motivation equation
Figure 6.1 The Motivation Equation

Inputs:

Effort

Time

Education

Experience

Skills

Knowledge

Job behaviors

Performance:

Quantity

Quality

Level of

customer

service

Outcomes:

Pay

Job security

Benefits

Vacation

Satisfaction

Pleasure

motivation and performance
Motivation and Performance
  • Performance is an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior
  • Motivation is only one factor among many that contributes to an employee’s job performance
  • P= F(M+E+O)
    • Motivation, Effort, & Opportunity
motivation
Intrinsic

actually performing the behavior

Behavior performed for its own sake

Extrinsic

Based on acquisition of material or social rewards or

Motivation
theories of motivation
Theories of Motivation
  • Need Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Procedural Justice Theory
need theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

5 universal needs

Hierarchy of importance

Once satisfied, need no longer motivates

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

3 universal needs

Hierarchy of importance

Flexible movement amongst levels

Need Theories
theories of motivation10
Theories of Motivation
  • Need Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Procedural Justice Theory
expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory
  • Effort------- Performance ---Rewards
  • Expectancy
  • Valence
  • Instrumentality
expectancy theory12
Expectancy Theory
  • Valence
    • How desirable is an outcome?
  • Instrumentality
    • What is the connection between job performance and an outcome?
  • Expectancy
    • What is the connection between effort and job performance?
equity theory
Equity Theory
  • What?
    • Compare inputs to outcomes
      • Who?
        • Inside/outside of occupation
        • Inside/outside organization
        • Inside/outside of nation
equity theory15
Inputs

Special skills

Training

Education

Work experience

Effort on the job

Time

Outcomes

Pay

Fringe benefits

Job satisfaction

Status

Opportunities for advancement

Job security

Equity Theory
equity theory16
Equity Theory
  • Inputs lead to outcomes
  • Objective level of outcomes does not determine work motivation
  • Outcome/input ratio compared to ratio of referent others leads to work motivation
ways to restore equity
Ways to Restore Equity
  • How do you restore equity if inequity is perceived?
procedural justice theory
Procedural Justice Theory
  • What?
    • Perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about the distribution of outcomes
    • Not the actual distribution of outcomes
  • Distributive justice
    • Actual distribution
procedural justice theory20
Procedural Justice Theory
  • Procedural decisions
    • How performance levels are evaluated
    • How grievances are handled
    • How outcomes are distributed
procedural justice theory21
Procedural Justice Theory
  • Higher motivation occurs when procedures used to make decisions are perceived as fair
  • Factors for determination of fairness
    • Interpersonal treatment of employees
    • Extent to which managers explain decisions to employees
opening case motivating employees at sas institute
Opening Case: Motivating Employees at SAS Institute
  • How can organizations continue to grow and have satisfied employees in the hard times as well as the good times?
  • SAS – the largest privately owned software company in the world
  • 9,000 employees
  • 1 of the 100 Best Companies to Work for in America and 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers