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Chapter 5 Motivation at Work. Learning Outcomes. Definition of Motivation. Motivation - the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior. Motivation is an attribution Who is responsible for this ? Managers need alternative theories for different

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chapter 5 motivation at work

Chapter 5Motivation at Work

Learning Outcomes

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide2

Definition of Motivation

Motivation -the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior

Motivation is an attribution

Who is responsible for this?

Managers need alternative theories for different

people, groups, and situations (contexts).

What is the role of money in motivation?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

three theories of motivation
Internal

Focus on variables within individual that lead to motivation and behavior.

Process

Emphasize nature of interaction between individual and environment.

External

Focus on elements in the environment to explain motivation and behavior.

THREE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

maslow s hierarchy of needs

Lowest to highest order

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

theory x and theory y
Theory X and Theory Y
  • A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs
  • A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcgregor s assumptions about people based on theory x
McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory X
  • Naturally indolent
  • Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led
  • Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs
  • Naturally resistant to change
  • Gullible, not bright, ready dupes

Adapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved. http://www.amanet.org.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcgregor s assumptions about people based on theory y
McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y
  • Passive and resistant behaviors not inherent; result of organizational experience
  • People possess
    • Motivation
    • Development potential
    • Capacity for assuming responsibility
    • Readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals

Adapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved. http://www.amanet.org.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

theory x y
Theory X/Y
  • Theory X: Workers are costs
  • Theory Y: Workers are assets
  • How do you explain “lazy” behavior?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcclelland s theory
McClelland’s Theory

3categories of needs

  • Achievement
  • Power
  • Affiliation

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcclelland s need theory need for achievement
McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Achievement

[Need for Achievement]

a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcclelland s need theory need for power
McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Power

[Need for Power]

a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

mcclelland s need theory need for affiliation
McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for Affiliation

[Need for Affiliation]

a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

need theory
Need Theory
  • What combination of needs are present in the best managers?

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

herzberg s two factor theory
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene factor

Motivation factor

Both are work conditions, but each addresses a different part of an employee’s experience

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide15

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Hygiene Factor -work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain

  • maintenance factor
  • contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied
  • contributes to absence of complaints

Motivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth

  • job enrichment
  • leads to superior performance & effort

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

motivation hygiene theory of motivation

Motivation factors increase job satisfaction

  • Company policy and administration
  • Supervision
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Working conditions
  • Salary
  • Status
  • Security
  • Achievement
  • Achievement recognition
  • Work itself
  • Responsibility
  • Advancement
  • Growth
  • Salary?

Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction

Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

SOURCE: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, The Managerial Choice: To be Efficient or to Be Human. (Salt Lake City: Olympus, 1982). Reprinted by permission.

slide17

Motivation-Hygiene Combinations

(Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)

slide18

My two cents worth

  • You have a RIGHT to be dissatisfied about your work conditions.
  • As an employee, you have a RESPONSIBILITY to communicate your dissatisfaction and work to help improve the conditions.
  • As a manager, you have a RESPONSIBILITY to continuously improve the work conditions within your control. Your best source of information about what to improve and how to improve it is your employees.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

new ideas eustress strength hope
New Ideas : Eustress, Strength, Hope

Eustress

  • healthy, normal stress
  • Encourages optimism, hope and health.
  • While things happen that are out of our control, we can control our response to them.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

individual organizational exchange
Individual–Organizational Exchange

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

adam s theory of inequity
Adam’s Theory of Inequity

People are motivated when they find themselves in situations of inequity or unfairness.

To look for inequity, people consider their inputs and their outcomes.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

equity and inequity at work
Equity and Inequity at Work

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide23

Practical Implications of the Equity Model

  • Treat employees fairly.
  • People make decisions concerning equity after comparing themselves with others.
  • Procedural justice influences perceptions of organizational fairness. Be as transparent as possible.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide24

Procedural Justice - Employee Participation

In Benefits

Satisfaction with Benefits System

Figure 1

Hypothesized Structural Model and Results of Final Structural Model

Affective Commitment

Performance

Distributive Justice - Benefits Comparisons

0.46**

0.40**

.48**

0.38**

.20*

0.50**

Satisfaction with Benefits Level

0.59**

*Standardized estimates are shown; dashed lines represent paths that were included in the hypothesized model but not in the final model. N=160. The measurement model and the correlations among the exogenous variables have been omitted for clarity.

** p < .01

* p < .05

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory

explains motivation in terms of an individual’s perception of the performance process.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

two basic notions of expectancy theory
Two Basic Notions of Expectancy Theory

People expect certain outcomes of behavior and performance.

People believe that the effort they put forth is related to the performance they achieve and the outcomes they receive.

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

key constructs of expectancy theory
Key Constructs of Expectancy Theory

Valence – value or importance placed on a particular reward

Expectancy – belief that effort leads to performance

Instrumentality – belief that performance is related to rewards

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

expectancy model of motivation
Expectancy Model of Motivation

I

V

E

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

3 causes of motivational problems
3 Causes of Motivational Problems
  • Belief that effort will not result in performance
  • Belief that performance will not result in rewards
  • The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards

© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

slide30

Core job

dimensions

Critical

psychological

states

Personal and

work outcomes

Skill variety

Task identity

Task significance

Experienced work’s

meaningfulness

Experienced

responsibility

for work’s outcomes

Knowledge of work

activities’ results

High internal

work motivation

High-quality

work performance

High satisfaction

with the work

Low absenteeism

and turnover

Autonomy

Feedback

Employee growth,need, strength

Job Characteristics Model (CH 14)