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Ancient Stuff. 8000 BCE to 600 CE. The Big Picture. What are civilizations all about? What makes a civilization? Political, economic, religion Social levels Occupations Use of technology Art Communication Transportation How does change occur within a society? CULTURAL DIFFUSION

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ancient stuff

Ancient Stuff

8000 BCE to 600 CE

the big picture
The Big Picture
  • What are civilizations all about? What makes a civilization?
    • Political, economic, religion
    • Social levels
    • Occupations
    • Use of technology
    • Art
    • Communication
    • Transportation
  • How does change occur within a society?
    • CULTURAL DIFFUSION
  • How are people impacted by, and how do they impact, geography, and climate?
at the beginning there was
At the beginning there was…
  • Major changes… remember that everything is a chain reaction in history
    • one event sets up everything
  • The beginning period
    • Figuring out farming
    • What happens when there is enough to eat?
    • Developing tech and ideas to support a city
      • And takeover others
    • Rise of major world religions
    • Collapse of Classical Empires
nomads follow the food
Nomads: Follow the food
  • Imagine early people
    • No cities
    • No farms
    • Only tried to satisfy FOOD and SHELTER needs
    • No advanced tools
    • Had to FIND shelter and had to FIND food
foraging societies hunt and gather
Foraging Societies: Hunt and Gather
  • Foraging societies = Hunter and Gatherers
  • Life was dictated by the animals
pastoral societies taming the animals
Pastoral Societies: Taming the animals
  • Characterized by the DOMESTICATION of animals
  • Usually found in more mountainous regions
the neolithic revolution
The Neolithic Revolution
  • “New Stone”
    • AKA Agricultural Revolution
  • 8000 BCE to 3000 BC
  • Civilizations started by water sources
  • Learn to cultivate => get to stay in one spot => => Sense of Property with ties to land => Sense of Unity => specialization of society => culture
important consequence
Important consequence…
  • FOOD SURPLUS
  • Leads to more complex societies, organized economies, governmental structures, religion
  • With IRRIGATION more land could be cultivated… leading to greater societal expansion
impact on environment
Impact on environment
  • Changed the landscape
    • Diverted water
    • Clearing land
    • Buildings
    • Stones cut into for building materials and monuments
  • Animals used for labor… not just food and clothing
the bronze age
The Bronze age
  • The latter half of the Neolithic period
  • They had developed in the first half
    • Pottery
    • Sharpened stones
    • Plows
    • Carts
    • Sails
    • wheels
  • During the Bronze age
    • Combined copper with tin
    • Created a harder metal
early civilizations
Early civilizations
  • 3000- 2000 BCE
  • Mesopotamia
  • Egypt
  • India
  • China
  • CITY-STATE
    • The city and the surrounding countryside
mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
  • “land between the rivers”
    • Tigris and Euphrates
    • Flooding was unpredictable
      • Early settlements washed away
      • Eventually built canals and dikes
  • Encompassed multiple civilizations
    • Sumer
    • Babylon
    • Persia
  • Part of the FERTILE CRESCENT
mesopotamia cont
Mesopotamia Cont…
  • By 3000 BCE
    • UR, Erech, Kish
      • Major City-States
ancient sumer
Ancient SUMER
  • Developed CUNEIFORM
    • Ancient writing form
    • Scribes
      • Writer
        • Wrote laws, customs, treaties
  • Developed 12 month calendar
  • Math…60 units (as in 60 seconds)
  • Developed arches and columns
sumerians cont
Sumerians Cont…
  • Polytheistic
    • Belief in more than one god
    • Each city has its own god and then there was a collective of gods that all cities worshipped
  • Built ZIGGURATS
    • Raised temples to honor the gods
    • Disasters were due to gods being angry
  • By 1700 BCE it was no more
from sumer to babylon to nineveh to babylon
From Sumer to Babylon to Nineveh to Babylon
  • The Akkadians (city of Akkad)
    • Rose after the decline of Sumer
  • Eventually overrun by BABYLON
    • Leader: King Hammurabi
      • HAMMURABI’S CODE: first set of modern legal code
        • Distinguished between major and minor offenses
        • Applied to everyone
        • Distinguished between social classes
  • Babylon falls to the HITTITES
    • 1500 BCE
slide19
Cont…
  • Hittites
    • Dominated due to use of iron weapons
  • Assyrians learn of Iron tech
    • Ninaveh (capital of Assyria)
    • Highly disciplined but cruel
    • Frequent uprisings
  • Chaldeans took over next
    • Leader: King Nebuchadnezzar
    • Rebuilt Babylon as a showplace
  • Persians then emerge and take over the Fertile crescent
persian immersion
Persian Immersion
  • 500 BCE
  • Built roads
    • Great Royal Road
      • 1600 miles from Persian Gulf to Aegean Sea
lydians phoenicians and hebrews oh my
Lydians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews… OH MY!
  • Lydians
    • Came up with money instead of bartering
    • Allowed more consistent pricing and a reason to save
  • Phoenicians
    • Established powerful naval city-states along the Mediteranean
    • Developed simple alphabet… leads to our modern alphabet
  • Hebrews (Jews/Judaism)
    • Monotheistic
    • Established Israel in Palestine
hebrews cont
Hebrews…cont…
  • Believed they are God’s chosen people
  • Frequently invaded but maintain identity
    • Nebuchadnezzar enslaved them
    • Under Persian rule they were freed
ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt
  • Reached peak around 1400 BCE (New Kingdom)
  • Three major Kingdoms
    • Old
    • Middle
    • New
egyptian achievements
Egyptian Achievements
  • Before the Old Kingdom they united under King Menes
  • Rulers known as Pharoahs
    • Seen as gods
  • Constructed Obelisks and Pyramids
  • Hieroglyphics
    • System of writing in pictures
  • Reliable calendar
  • Engaged heavily in trade
you can take it with you
You can take it with you!
  • Egyptians were polytheistic
  • Belief in the afterlife
  • Believed they could take their belongings
  • Believed they could use their bodies in the afterlife…leads to MUMMIFICATION
    • Preserving dead bodies
    • Only available to the elite
egyptian women hear them roar
Egyptian Women, Hear them ROAR!
  • Queen Hatshepsut
    • First known female ruler
    • 22 years during New Kingdom
    • Expanded trade
  • Women could
    • buy and sell property
    • Inherit property
    • Will their property
    • Dissolve marriages
  • Women were still subservient to men
    • Valued as bearers of children
    • Females not as educated as male counterparts
ancient egypt in decline
Ancient Egypt in Decline 
  • By 1100 BCE until 100 BCE
  • Conquered by both Assyrians and Persians… then the Greeks and finally the ROMANS
indus valley cont
Indus Valley cont…
  • 2500 BCE to 1500 BCE
  • Khyber pass
    • “only” way into the Indus Valley
    • They were cut off from invaders at the beginning
  • Major cities
    • Mohenjo-Daro
    • Harrapa
      • Home to about 100,000 each
  • May have had sophisticated water systems
  • Strong Central government
indus valley cont1
Indus Valley Cont…
  • Most likely led by a King-Priest
  • Polytheistic
  • Indus Industry was top notch
    • Used potter’s wheel
    • Grew cotton
    • Made cloth
  • Around 1900 BCE the cities started to be abandoned for unknown reasons
arrival of the aryans
Arrival of the Aryans
  • Nomadic tribe from North of the Caucasus Mountains
aryans cont
Aryans Cont…
  • Used horses and advanced weapons to easily defeat Indus people
  • Began to settle Indus Valley
  • Most Important fact
    • Belief system formed HINDUISM
      • Reincarnation
      • Polytheistic
      • Recorded beliefs in the VEDAS and UPANISHADS
  • Also contributed the CASTE SYSTEM
caste system
Caste System
  • Initially Warriors/Priests/Peasants
  • Later changes to Priests (brahmans)/Warriors/Landowners-Merchants/Peasants
  • As system evolved movement between classes forbidden
    • Born into it
early china shang on the hwang
Early China: SHANG on the HWANG
  • Shang China rose in the Hwang Ho River Valley
    • AKA Yellow River Valley
shang cont
Shang Cont…
  • 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE
  • Like others they used agricultural surplus to build a trade center
  • Northern China
  • Military Power
    • used chariots
  • Limited contact with world
  • Believed they were the CENTER OF THE WORLD
shang cont1
Shang Cont…
  • Called themselves “ALL UNDER HEAVEN”
  • Accomplished Bronze workers
  • Chariots and developed the spoked wheel
  • Pottery
  • Silk
  • Devised a decimal system
  • Highly accurate Calendar
shang s family focus
Shang’s Family Focus
  • Extended family important
  • Patriarchal structure
    • Led by eldest male
  • Believed God’s controlled all aspects of people’s lives
  • Believed they could call on their dead ancestors to advocate with the Gods
    • Led to greater significance of extended family
enter the zhou
Enter the ZHOU
  • Zhou dynasty
    • AKA Chou
    • 1100 BCE
      • Ruled for about 900 years
  • Believed in MANDATE OF HEAVEN
    • Heaven would grant power as long as its rulers governed justly and wisely
    • Similar to DIVINE RIGHT
zhou cont
Zhou Cont…
  • Developed a feudal system
    • King ruled overall
    • Nobles given power over smaller regions
      • King protected nobles in exchange for loyalty
  • As time passes, the nobles built up power
    • Kingdoms emerge after splits
      • Some developed BUREAUCRACIES
        • Government organizing into BUREAUS
          • Specialized departments
  • ZHOU ends in 256 BCE
west africa bantu migrations and the stateless society
WEST AFRICA: BANTU migrations and the “Stateless Society”
  • Around 1500 BCE
  • Niger river and Benue River valleys migrated east and south
    • BANTU MIGRATIONS
      • Spurred by climate change
      • Sahara desert area
  • BANTU was the family of languages
  • JENNE-JENO
    • First city in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • Not hierarchically organized
      • Collection of communities
classical civilizations india
Classical Civilizations: India
  • Mauryan Empire
    • 321 BCE to 180 BCE
  • Gupta Dynasty
    • 320 to 550 CE
mauryan empire
Mauryan Empire
  • 321 BCE to 180 BCE
  • Aryan Culture spread (Introduced Hinduism and caste system)
  • Founded by Chadragupta Maurya
    • Unified the smaller Aryan kingdoms
    • Grandfather to Ashoka Maurya
  • Ashoka was its greatest leader
    • Rock and Pillar Edicts
      • Reminded people to live generous and righteous lives
      • Converted to Buddhism and spread the religion
mauryan empire cont
Mauryan Empire cont…
  • Became powerful through trade
    • Silk, cotton, elephants
    • To Mesopotamia and eastern Roman empire
  • Had a powerful military
    • Ashoka converted to Buddhism after a violent and bloody battle over the Kalinga
    • He then started preaching nonviolence and moderation
gupta dynasty
Gupta Dynasty
  • 320 – 550 CE
  • Major Leader: Chandra Gupta
    • Led the “golden age”
      • Peaceful time
      • Advances in art and science
        • Developed Pi and concept of zero
        • Decimal system of 1-9
          • Diffused to Arabs and became known as arabic numerals
  • Hinduism came back along with caste system
    • Women lost rights
  • Collapsed after White Hun invasion in 550
classical civilizations china
Classical Civilizations: China
  • Qin Dynasty
    • 221 to 209 BCE
  • Han Dynasty
    • 200 BCE to 200 CE
qin dynasty in china
Qin Dynasty in China
  • 221 to 209 BCE
    • Extremely short
    • Buuuuuuut Important
  • Connected fortification walls and created the GREAT WALL OF CHINA
  • Leader: Qin Shi Huang Di
  • Standardized laws, currencies, weights, measures, and writing
  • Did not tolerate dissent… burned books and killed dissenters
qin cont
Qin Cont…
  • Patriarchal
  • LEGALISM
    • Believed in strong government
  • After emperor’s death peasants revolted and led to the HAN DYNASTY
han dynasty in china
Han Dynasty in China
  • 200 BCE to 200 CE
  • The Huns invaded China and Eastern Europe
  • Major leader: WU TI
  • Trade thrived along the Silk Road
  • Developed CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM
    • Based on merit not who you knew
    • Based on teachings of Confucius
    • Testing lasted several days
    • Open to all but only the wealthy could afford to prepare for it
han dynasty cont
Han Dynasty cont…
  • Invented paper, accurate sundials, and calendars
  • Broadened use of metals
classical civilizations greece
Classical Civilizations: Greece
  • Mountainous area
    • Not good for agriculture
  • Good harbors and mild weather
  • Eventually replaced bartering with monetary system… developed by who?
  • Because of this ATHENS emerges as a wealthy city
  • Because land was scarce they developed a strong military to expand their territory
greece cont
Greece cont…
  • Polis
    • AKA city-state
    • Shared culture and identity
    • Each was independent
      • Led to conflict
  • Two main city-states
    • ATHENS
      • More culturally centered
    • SPARTA
      • More militarily centered
      • Women had more rights than in Athens
greece cont1
Greece cont…
  • Polis
    • Composed three groups
      • Citizens (adult males) in business/commerce
      • Free people with no political rights
      • Non-citizens (slaves with no rights… about 1/3rd)
  • Among Citizens civic decisions were debated and all citizens participated (only males)
    • FIRST DEMOCRACY
greece cont2
Greece cont…
  • Slavery led to Democracy
    • Slave labor led to extra free time
    • Slaves could buy their freedom
greek mythology
Greek Mythology
  • Polytheistic
    • Zeus
    • Aphrodite
  • Gods possessed human failings
    • Got angry
    • Got drunk
    • Took sides
    • Had petty arguments
war with persia the greeks hold on
War with Persia… The Greeks hold on
  • PERSIAN WARS
    • United Greek city-states against their mutual enemy… Persia
    • Much of Athens was destroyed
    • Two major victories
      • Marathon and Salamis
  • After war they enter the “Golden Age of Pericles”
golden age of pericles
Golden Age of Pericles
  • Leader: Pericles (of Athens)
  • Philosophy and the arts flourished
  • Hoplites and Phalynx established
  • Established the DELIAN LEAGUE
    • An alliance against aggression from common enemies
    • Athens took the money
      • Spent on arts and navy
in philosophy
In Philosophy…
  • SOCRATES, PLATO, ARISTOTLE
  • Believed truth could be discerned through rational thought and deliberate observation
  • Although not always accurate, the process they went through was revolutionary
other advances during the golden age
Other advances during the Golden Age…
  • Greek architecture
    • Ionic, Dorian, Corinthian columns
  • Math and Science flourished
    • Archimedes, Hippocrates, Euclid, Pythagoras
  • But culture did exist before the Golden Age
    • Homer
      • Wrote the Illiad and The Odessey
trouble for athens
Trouble for Athens
  • Others aligned with Sparta to form the Peloponnesian League
  • Athens became fearful of Sparta and vice versa
  • Trade disputes lead to PELOPONNESIAN WAR
    • 431 BCE
  • Athens hid behind its great walls since it couldn’t get to Sparta
    • Sparta was inland…Athens had only a good Navy
  • Plan worked except for a plague and a defeat of their navy at Syracuse
weakened by war
Weakened by War
  • Sparta did not destroy Athens since it respected them
  • Both weakened
  • Conquered by the Macedonians
    • Leader: Phillip of Macedon
      • 359 BCE to 336 BCE
        • Also respected the Greek culture
  • Phillip’s son becomes king
    • ALEXANDER THE GREAT
      • Taught by Aristotle
alexander the great
Alexander the Great
  • Conquered the Persian Empire
  • Creates largest Empire of the time
    • Divided into three empires
  • Adopted Greek customs then Culturally Diffused the ideas
  • HELLENISM
    • The culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece
    • Much of the World had uniform beliefs
death of alexander
Death of Alexander
  • Died at 33 years old
  • Macedonian empire collapses afterwards
  • Rome emerges
classical civilizations rome1
Classical Civilizations: ROME
  • 509 BCE to 476 CE
  • Good position geographically
    • Alps to the north provided protection
    • Protected from large scale naval invasion
    • Crossroads/easy access to many places
  • Polytheistic
    • Many gods were Greek but renamed to suit culture
social structure in rome
Social Structure in Rome
  • PATRICIANS (land owners) vs. PLEBEIANS (the others) vs. Slaves
  • Patriarchal Society
  • Slavery was important
    • 1/3 of pop
    • Came from conquered territories
  • REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC
    • Senate and Assembly
    • Two Consuls elected annually
  • Much more stable since you don’t have to vote on everything
  • Code of Laws
    • Twelve Tables of Rome
      • Innocent until proven guilty
roman military domination
Roman Military Domination
  • Carthage was first major enemy (N. Africa)
    • PUNIC WARS
  • First Punic War
    • 264 BCE to 241 BCE
    • Rome Won
  • Second Punic War
    • 218 BCE
    • HANNIBAL, Carthaginian General
      • Invaded much of the Roman Empire
      • Had to return home to defend Carthage and lost their gains
roman military cont
Roman Military Cont…
  • Third Punic War
    • Rome started it
    • Invaded Carthage… burned it to the ground
  • Rome also faught
    • Defeating the Macedonians
    • Gauls in the north
    • Spaniards to the west
  • With all this conquering they
    • Built road networks, aqueducts, and grew their Navy
collapse of the republic and rise of imperialism
Collapse of the Republic and Rise of Imperialism
  • Problems in Rome
    • Large landowners started using more slaves
      • Displaced small farmers… they move to cities… causes overcrowding with not enough jobs
    • Roman currency devalued
    • Political leaders began fighting
      • Power of Senate weakens… leads to
        • FIRST TRIUMVIRATE
          • Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar
first triumverate
First Triumverate
  • Caesar given power over Gaul (France)
    • Never invaded Germany
  • Caesar’s followers pushed out the other two
    • Becomes Emperor for life
    • Angry senators assassinate him in 44 BCE
  • Second Triumverate emerges
    • Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus
      • Octavius rose to power
        • Becomes “Augustus Caesar”
  • ROMAN REPUBLIC OVER… EMPEROR LEADS THE WAY
augustus caesar
Augustus Caesar
  • Rome becomes the capital of the Western World
  • 200 years of peace
    • PAX ROMANA (Roman Peace)
  • Growth of arts and sciences
    • Literature
      • Virgil’s Aeneid
    • Architecture
      • Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
religious diversity new chiefs of beliefs
Religious Diversity: New Chiefs of Beliefs
  • Early on it was Paganism
    • Made sacrifices to Roman Gods
    • Had to worship them in order to show loyalty
  • Christianity then emerges
    • Grew out of Judaism
    • Romans initially OK with it… then see it as a threat
  • Roman Emperor NERO persecuted Christians
  • Emperor Constantine ends persecution in 313 CE with the EDICT OF MILAN
    • 391 CE Christianity becomes official religion
late classical period
Late Classical Period
  • 200-600 CE
  • Fall of
    • Han China
    • Gupta Empire
    • Western Roman Empire
    • Mayan
collapse of the han
Collapse of the Han
  • Han dynasty interupted by WANG MANG
    • Seized throne by using the MANDATE OF HEAVEN argument
    • Established the XIN DYNASTY (9-23 CE)
      • Reforms were unsuccessful… led to revolts
      • Han take control after revolts but were never as powerful… fully lose control in 220 CE
        • China divides into regional kingdoms
collapse of the gupta empire
Collapse of the Gupta Empire
  • INVADED by the HUNS (Not Attila’s forces, they were attacking Europe)… the white huns
    • Held them off for a little while but were weakened
    • Hinduism and the caste system remained intact but the empire did not
collapse of the western portion of the roman empire
Collapse of the WESTERN Portion of the Roman Empire
  • Fell due to internal decay, external pressure (Attila and other groups)
  • Empire was just too large to be supported
  • Series of bad leaders
  • Epidemics
roman s cont
Roman’s cont.
  • Diocletian… 284 CE takes over and divides the Empire into halves ruled by co-emperors
  • Civil war erupts after his retirement
  • CONSTANTINE comes to power in 322 CE
    • Builds Constantinople
      • Becomes the new capital of a united Rome after he tries to take back the lost lands
    • He dies and the Empire divides again
      • Eastern half thrives (becomes BYZANTINE EMPIRE)… Western half dies
        • Germanic Tribes along borders (VISIGOTHS)
          • Were Roman
        • Visigoths pushed back by Attila and the Huns… then retreat and sack Rome
trade and cultural diffusion
Trade and Cultural Diffusion
  • Major Trade routes emerge
    • SILK ROAD
      • China to Roman Empire
      • Pastoral communities feed/trade/shelter the traders
  • Disease travels the same routes
  • Religion spreads along the same routes
outline of things to know
Outline of things to know
  • Polytheism
  • Confuscianism
  • Daoism
  • Legalism
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
polytheism
Polytheism
  • Belief in more than one god
  • Practiced by almost all except the Hebrews
confucianism
Confucianism
  • 400 BCE – present
  • China
  • Who was Confucius?
    • Born an aristocrat
    • His thinking was generally at odds with state policy
    • Attracted followers… they wrote his beliefs in the ANALECTS
    • It is a POLITICAL and SOCIAL philosophy NOOOOOOOOOT a RELIGION
confucius cont
Confucius cont…
  • Focus on 5 relationships and their obligations/responsibilities
    • Ruler and Subject
    • Parent and Child
    • Husband and Wife
    • Older Brother and Younger Brother
    • Friend and Friend
confucius cont1
Confucius cont…
  • Ren- sense of kindness
  • Li- sense of respect
  • Xiao- FILIAL PIETY
    • Respect for family obligations
  • Confucianism places the emphasis on the Individual to act accordingly NOT the government mandating it
daoism
Daoism
  • 500 BCE and onward
  • China
  • AKA Taoism
  • Lao-Tzu
    • Chinese philosopher
    • The DAO or the WAY is passive… it accomplishes everything but does nothing
      • Ex. The opening in a pot does nothing but without it there would be no pot
    • You just let things happen… simple life… harmony with nature
legalism
Legalism
  • Qin Dynasty (221-209 BCE)
  • China
  • Maintained that peace and order were achieved through a centralized, tightly governed state
  • Didn’t trust human nature… needed tough laws
    • Caused widespread dissent
hinduism
Hinduism
  • Indian subcontinent
  • Believe in one supreme force… the BRAHMA… the creator
  • Hindu gods are manifestations of Brahma
    • Vishnu… the preserver
    • Shiva… the DESTROYER…MUHAHAHAHAHA
  • Goal: to merge with Brahma
    • Cannot be accomplished in one lifetime
hinduism cont
Hinduism cont…
  • Must follow DHARMA to move up
    • The rules and obligations of the caste your born into
    • Determines how you live your next life
  • Life, death, rebirth continues until MOKSHA
    • Release of the soul to Brahma
  • VEDAS and UPANISHADS
    • Sources of prayers, verses, and origins of the universe
buddhism
Buddhism
  • India, China, SE Asia
  • Founded: Siddhartha Gautauma
    • 563 BCE to 483 BCE
    • Rejected his wealth (was a prince)
    • Searched for meaning of human suffering
    • Meditated under a bodhi tree and reached enlightenment or Buddha status
buddhism cont
Buddhism cont…
  • No supreme being in Buddhism
  • Follow the FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
    • All life is suffering
    • Suffering is caused by desire
    • One can be freed of this desire
    • One is freed by following the EIGHTFOLD PATH
      • Following the path moves you towards NIRVANA
        • State of perfect harmony
judaism
Judaism
  • Hebrews
  • Monotheistic
  • Believes God holds them as his select people
  • Believe if they worshipped him, he would preserve them for all time
  • Believed in free will and the task of humans is to honor and serve God by following the TORAH
ad