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Summarizing E-Learning Research and Best Practices for Higher Education. Curt Bonk, Indiana University (and [email protected] Ok, What Does the Research Say???. Tons of Recent Research. Not much of it any good.

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Summarizing e learning research and best practices for higher education
Summarizing E-Learning Research and Best Practices for Higher Education

Curt Bonk, Indiana University


[email protected]

Tons of recent research
Tons of Recent Research Higher Education

Not much of it any good...

What s the basic dl finding
What’s the Basic DL Finding? Higher Education

Research since 1928 shows that DL students perform as well as their counterparts in a traditional classroom setting.

Per: Russell, 1999, The No Significant Difference Phenomenon (5th Edition), NCSU, based on 355 research reports.

It is flawed
It is Flawed! Higher Education

  • lack of control groups

  • nonrandom assignment to groups

  • questionable validity

  • anecdotal

  • limited to certain educational environments

  • Flaws in research designs

    - Only 36% have objective learning measures

    - Only 45% have comparison groups

    • (The Report, 1999; Wisher et al., 1999).

More flaws
More Flaws!!! Higher Education

  • Impact of individual not multiple technologies.

  • Fails to consider learning styles & indiv diffs (e.g., self-efficacy, motivation, gender).

  • Lack reliable and valid testing instruments.

  • Does not address higher dropout rates.

  • Generally lacks theoretical grounding.

    • (National Center for Education Statistics, 1999; Phipps & Merisotos, 1999; Wisher et al., 1999).

Electronic conferencing quantitative analyses
Electronic Conferencing: Quantitative Analyses Higher Education

  • Usage patterns, # of messages, cases, responses

  • Length of case, thread, response

  • Average number of responses

  • Timing of cases, commenting, responses, etc.

  • Types of interactions (1:1; 1: many)

  • Data mining (logins, peak usage, location, session length, paths taken, messages/day/week), Time-Series Analyses (trends)

Electronic conferencing qualitative analyses
Electronic Conferencing: Qualitative Analyses Higher Education

  • General: Observation Logs, Reflective interviews, Retrospective Analyses, Focus Groups

  • Specific: Semantic Trace Analyses, Talk/Dialogue Categories (Content talk, q’ing, peer fdbk, social acknowledgments, off task)

  • Emergent: Forms of Learning Assistance, Levels of Questioning, Degree of Perspective Taking, Case Quality, Participant Categories

Research on instructors online
Research on Instructors Online Higher Education

  • Constantly shifting roles

    • (Rice-Lively, 1994)

  • Host: Connects people on fringes of party

    • (Rogan & Denton, 1996)

  • Four Key Acts of Instructors:

    • pedagogical, managerial, technical, and social

    • (Ashton, Roberts, & Teles, 1999)

  • Instructors Tend to Rely on Simple Tools

    • (Peffers & Bloom, 1999)

  • Job Varies--Plan, Interaction, Admin, Tchg

    • (McIsaac, Blocher, Mahes, & Vrasidas, 1999)

Instructor as facilitator
Instructor as Facilitator Higher Education

  • Minor changes moderating = great diff in interaction

    • (Howell-Richardson & Mellar, 1996)

  • Informal, exploratory conversation fosters risktaking & knowledge sharing

    • (Weedman, 1999)

  • Conversational instructional style produces higher and more complex participation

  • If teacher-centered, less explore, engage, interact

    • (Peck, and Laycock, 1992)

  • Student interaction & instructor monitoring produced most favorable student evals

    • (Rada, 1998)

Network conferencing interactivity rafaeli and sudweeks 1997
Network Conferencing Interactivity Higher Education(Rafaeli and Sudweeks, 1997)

1. > 50 percent of messages were reactive.

2. Only around 10 percent were truly interactive.

3. Most messages factual stmts or opinions

4. Many also contained questions or requests.

5. Frequent participators more reactive than low.

6. Interactive messages more opinions & humor.

7. More self-disclosure, involvement, & belonging.

8. Attracted to fun, open, frank, helpful, supportive environments.

Interaction research findings
Interaction Research Findings Higher Education

  • High level of mutual support

    • including acknowledgments

    • encouragement

    • personal information and feelings

    • Metainteraction: In effect, these online conferences blended both cognitive and interactive acts.

  • Avoid peer controversy & critical attitudes

  • Need intersubjectivity online wherein participants agree, disagree, challenge, & negotiate.

    • Bakardjieva and Harasim (1999)

Critical thinking newman johnson webb and cochrane 1997
Critical Thinking Higher Education(Newman, Johnson, Webb, and Cochrane, 1997)

Used Garrison’s five-stage critical thinking model

  • Critical thinking in both CMC and FTF envir.

  • Depth of critical thinking higher in CMC envir.

    • More likely to bring in outside information (personal experience, course materials, etc.),

    • Link ideas and offer interpretations,

    • Generate important ideas and solutions.

  • FTF settings were better for generating new ideas and creatively exploring problems.

  • May be even more evident in case studies, debates, symposia, role play, voting, etc.

Social construction of knowledge gunawardena lowe and anderson 1997
Social Construction of Knowledge Higher Education(Gunawardena, Lowe, and Anderson, 1997)

  • Five Stage Model

    1. Share ideas,

    2. Discovery of Idea Inconsistencies,

    3. Negotiate Meaning and Areas of Agreement,

    4. Test and Modify,

    5. Phrase Agreements

  • In global debate, students very task driven.

  • Dialogue remained at Phase I with the sharing of info, not negotiating, constructing, of knowledge

  • Replicated in follow-up study of 25 managers

    • (Kanuka & Anderson, 1998).

Collaborative behaviors curtis and lawson 1999
Collaborative Behaviors Higher Education(Curtis and Lawson, 1999)

  • Most common were: (1) Planning, (2) Contributing, and (3) Seeking Input.

  • Other common events were:

    (4) Initiating activities,

    (5) Providing feedback,

    (6) Sharing knowledge

  • Few students challenge others or attempt to explain or elaborate

  • Recommend: using debates and modeling appropriate ways to challenge others

The Focus Should Shift from Higher Educationwhether it makes a difference to where it makes a difference

  • Phipps & Merisotis (1999)

    One common finding—online courses need sensible pedagogical approaches that allow students opportunities to communicate their learning

  • Sloan Center for Asynchronous Learning Environments (SCALE) at the University of Illinois can be reduced to (Arwan, Ory, Bullock, Burnaska, & Hanson, 1998)

Bonk’s Research Higher Education

Asynchronous possibilities
Asynchronous Possibilities Higher Education

1. Link to peers and mentors.

2. Expand and link to alternative resources.

3. Involve in case-based reasoning.

4. Connect students in field to the class.

5. Provide e-mail assistance.

6. Bring experts to teach at any time.

7. Provide exam preparation.

8. Foster small group work.

9. Engage in electronic discussions & writing.

10. Structure electronic role play.

Pedagogical actualities
Pedagogical Actualities Higher Education

  • Teacher-Created Cases

  • Student-Created Cases

  • Online Mentoring

  • Starter-Wrapper Discussions

  • Field Reflections

  • Reading Reactions

  • Debates (Teacher and Student Created)

  • Critical Friend Activities

  • Web Buddies

  • Synchronous Group Problem Solving

E learning vision and goals
E-Learning Vision and Goals? Higher Education

  • Making connections through cases.

  • Appreciating different perspectives.

  • Students as teachers.

  • Greater depth of discussion.

  • Fostering critical thinking online.

  • Interactivity online.

Quantitative methods
Quantitative Methods Higher Education

Average results for prior to TITLE (TITLE):

  • Participants per semester: 130 (>300)

  • Cases per semester: 230 (624)

  • Cases per student: 1.75 (same 1.80)

  • Average responses per case: 4.5 (3.9)

  • Average words per case: 100-140 (198)

Frequent case topics
Frequent Case Topics Higher Education

Overall major findings
Overall Major Findings Higher Education

  • COW enhanced student learning

    • provided a link between classroom and field

    • encouraged learning about technology

  • COW extended student learning

    • students got feedback from outside their immediate community

    • students saw international perspective

  • COW transformed student learning

    • students took ownership for learning

    • students co-constructed knowledge base

Research on Starter-Wrapper Technique Higher Education

Graduate Class

Surface vs deep posts

Surface Processing Higher Education

making judgments without justification,

stating that one shares ideas or opinions already stated,

repeating what has been said

asking irrelevant questions

i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite.

In-depth Processing

linked facts and ideas,

offered new elements of information,

discussed advantages and disadvantages of a situation,

made judgments that were supported by examples and/or justification.

i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.

Surface vs. Deep Posts

Army Research Project: Blended E-Learning Higher EducationOverall frequency of interactions across chat categories (6,601 chats).

Findings from the qualitative analysis
Findings from the Qualitative Analysis Higher Education

  • U.S. students more action-oriented and pragmatic in seeking results or giving solutions.

  • Finnish students were more group focused as well as reflective and theoretically driven.

  • Korean students were more socially and contextually driven.

E learning problems and solutions

Tasks Overwhelm Higher Education

Confused on Web

Too Nice Due to Limited Share History

Lack Justification

Hard not to preach

Too much data

Communities not easy to form

Train and be clear

Structure time/dates due

Develop roles and controversies

Train to back up claims

Students take lead role

Use Email Pals; set times and amounts

Embed Informal/Social

E-LearningProblems and Solutions

E learning benefits and implications

Shy open up online Higher Education

Minimal off task

Delayed collab more rich than real time; discussion extends

Students can generate lots of info

Minimal disruptions

Extensive E-Advice

Excited to Publish

Use async conferencing

Create social tasks

Use Async for debates; Sync for help, office hours (use both to reflect)

Structure generation and force reflection/comment

Foster debates/critique

Find Practitioners/Experts

Ask Permission

E-LearningBenefits and Implications

Survey 222 college faculty early adopters of the web
Survey: 222 College Faculty Higher Education(Early Adopters of the Web)

Courseware features like with current tool
Courseware Features Like with Current Tool Higher Education

  • Comprehensive, consistent, customizable

  • Ease of use, flexible, reliable

  • Data and course security

  • Detailed statistics on bulletin board use

  • Good online help

  • Internal e-mail systems, drop boxes, chats

  • Posting of tasks & due dates on Web

  • Randomized test banks

Problems faced

Administrative: Higher Education

“Lack of admin vision.”

“Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that they do not understand the time needed.”

“Lack of system support.”

“Little recognition that this is valuable.”

“Rapacious U intellectual property policy.”

“Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.”


“Difficulty in performing lab experiments online.”

“Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.”


“More ideas than time to implement.”

“Not enough time to correct online assign.”

“People need sleep; Web spins forever.”

Problems Faced

Best of online pedagogical strategies
Best of Online Higher EducationPedagogical Strategies…

Online strategies karen lazenby university of pretoria nov 2001
Online Strategies Higher Education(Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001)

  • Limit lecturing online—promote self-directed learning

  • Set clear rules for posting and interaction

  • Explain tasks and overlooked info.

  • Let learners synthesize key points.

  • Publish best work of students (with permission)

  • Involve participation from outside experts

Changing role of the teacher the online teacher tafe guy kemshal bell april 2001
Changing Role of the Teacher Higher EducationThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)

  • From oracle to guide and resource provider

  • From providers of answers to expert questioners

  • From solitary teacher to member of team

  • From total control of teaching environment to sharing as a fellow student

  • From provider of content to designer of learning experiences.

Key skills or attributes scale 0 3 the online teacher tafe guy kemshal bell april 2001
Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3) Higher EducationThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)

  • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86)

  • Ability to engage the learner (2.84)

  • Ability to provide direction and support (2.82)

  • Skills in online listening (2.76)

  • Ability to use email effectively (2.70)

  • Ability to motivate online learners (2.66)

  • Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66)

  • Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)

Knowledge Sharing & Construction Higher EducationE-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page)

  • Be an equal participant in the conference.

  • Provide sparks or interesting comments.

  • Avoid directives and right answers.

  • Acknowledge all contributions.

  • Weave, summarize, and model discussion.

  • Support others for e-moderator role.

  • Reward knowledge construction & accomplishments.

  • Be tolerant of twists in the discussion.

Pedagogical recommendations berge 1995 the role of the online instructor facilitator
Pedagogical Recommendations Higher Education(Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator)

  • Don’t expect too much/thread

  • Draw attention to conflicting views

  • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of comments yields silence)

  • Request responses within set time

  • Maintain non-authoritarian style

  • Promote private conversations

Little or no feedback given Higher Education

Always authoritative

Kept narrow focus of what was relevant

Created tangential discussions

Only used “ultimate” deadlines

Provided regular qual/quant feedback

Participated as peer

Allowed perspective sharing

Tied discussion to grades, other assns.

Used incremental deadlines

Dennen’s Research on Nine Online Courses (sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling)

Poor Instructors Good Instructors

Web based resources oliver mcloughlin 1999
Web-Based Resources Higher Education(Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999)

  • URL Postings in Dynamic Database (for inquiry)

  • Electronic Discussions (to see ideas unfold)

  • Debates (submit arguments in a public space)

  • Personal Reflections (encourage to rebut/refute)

  • Concept Maps (see relationships)

  • Nominal Group Process (to gain consensus)

  • Survey (can aggregate student responses)

Pedagogical Techniques of CMC Higher Education(Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication)

  • Collective databases

  • Informal socializing (online cafes)

  • Seminars (read before going online)

  • Public tutorials

  • Peer counseling

  • Simulations, games, and role plays

  • Forum

  • Email interviews

  • Symposia or speakers on a theme

  • The notice board (class announcements)

Synchronous considerations jennifer hoffman astd learning circuits 2001 march
Synchronous Considerations Higher EducationJennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March)

  • Log on early; students come 15 minutes early.

  • Do tech checks of microphones (sound check).

  • Check to see if students brought needed items

  • Welcome to the session/class; explain goals; ask for feedback on goals.

  • Vary instructional strategies; max interactivity

  • Make it visual—color, sound, animation

  • A “Do Not Disturb” sign & be near a restroom; pitcher of water

Pedagogical tips bonk 1998
Pedagogical Tips Higher Education(Bonk 1998)

  • Test system with immediate task

  • Build peer interactivity

  • Embed choices (avatars, tasks, etc.)

  • Simplify (everything!!!)

  • Embed peer and portfolio fdbk tools

  • Offer early feedback

  • Link to prior work (legacies)

What do we need

What do we need??? Higher Education


1 reflect on extent of integration the web integration continuum
1. Reflect on Extent of Integration: Higher EducationThe Web Integration Continuum

Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web

Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration

Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources

Level 4: Course Resources on the Web

Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others


Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded

Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class

Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students

Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students

Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative

2 reflect on interactions matrix of web interactions cummings bonk jacobs in press
2. Reflect on Interactions: Higher EducationMatrix of Web Interactions(Cummings, Bonk, & Jacobs, in press)

Instructor to Student: syllabus, notes, feedback

to Instructor: Course resources, syllabi, notes

to Practitioner: Tutorials, articles, listservs

Student to Student: Intros, sample work, debates

to Instructor: Voting, tests, papers, evals.

to Practitioner: Web links, resumes

Practitioner to Student:Internships, jobs, fieldtrips

to Instructor: Opinion surveys, fdbk, listservs

to Practitioner: Forums, listservs

3 models of technology in education dennen 1999
3. Models of Technology in Education Higher Education (Dennen, 1999)

  • Enhancing the Curriculum

    • computers for extra activities: drill and practice CD-ROMs; tool; intelligent tutor

  • Extending the Curriculum

    • transcend classroom and engage in activities not possible without it: Online class conferences, Cross-University Collaboration, CSCL.

  • Transforming the Curriculum

    • allowing learners to construct knowledge bases and resources in a community setting regardless of physical location or time and join a learning community.

4 reflect on environment how to be learner centered on the web bonk cummings 1998

1. Safe Lrng Community Higher Education

2. Foster Engagement

3. Give Choice

4. Facilitate Learning

5. Offer Feedback

6. Apprentice Learning

7. Use Recursive Tasks

8. Use Writing & Reflection

9. Build On Web Links

10. Be Clear & Prompt Help

11. Evaluate Dimensionally

12. Personalize in Future

4. Reflect on Environment:How to Be Learner-Centered on the Web (Bonk & Cummings, 1998)

5 new theories
5. New Theories Higher Education

  • Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most effective in authentic, or real world, contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989).

  • Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas; hence, meaning is derived from negotiating, generating, and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel & Papert, 1991).

6 four key hats of instructors
6. Four Key Hats of Instructors: Higher Education

  • Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work?

  • Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure?

  • Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking?

  • Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed?

  • Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.

7 online mentoring and assistance online
7. Online Mentoring and Assistance Online Higher Education

Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and assistance(Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001)

There is a problem
There is a problem… Higher Education

Do we want degrees in electronic page turning
Do we want degrees in electronic page turning??? Higher Education

  • To get the certificate, learners merely needed to “read” (i.e. click through) each screen of material

  • Is this pedagogically sound?

How bad is it
How Bad Is It? Higher Education

“Some frustrated Blackboard users who say the company is too slow in responding to technical problems with its course-management software have formed an independent users’ group to help one another and to press the company to improve.”

(Jeffrey Young, Nov. 2, 2001, Chronicle of Higher Ed)

Three most vital skills the online teacher tafe guy kemshal bell april 2001
Three Most Vital Skills Higher EducationThe Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)

  • Ability to engage the learner (30)

  • Ability to motivate online learners (23)

  • Ability to build relationships (19)

  • Technical ability (18)

  • Having a positive attitude (14)

  • Adapt to individual needs (12)

  • Innovation or creativity (11)

Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic Motivation Higher Education

“…innate propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capabilities, and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges

(i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and personal curiosity for growth)

See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. NY: Plenum Press.

Extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic Motivation Higher Education

“…is motivation that arises from external contingencies.” (i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy, comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation)

See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Pedagogical tools needed
Pedagogical Tools Needed!!! Higher Education

  • Creative Thinking

  • Critical Thinking

  • Cooperative Learning

  • Motivational

Motivational Terms? Higher EducationSee Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)

  • Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging

  • Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement

  • Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement

  • Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic

  • Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy

  • Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns

  • Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control

  • Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy

  • Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community

  • Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership

Tone a instructor modeling
Tone: Higher EducationA. Instructor Modeling

  • Students look to online instructors to model expectations

  • The first week of a course is a critical period for setting the tone and the level of discussion

  • If an instructor is personable, students will be personable

  • If an instructor is very formal, students will be formal

Tone b thiagi like ice breakers
Tone: Higher EducationB. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

1. Introductions: require not only that students introduce themselves, but also that they find and respond to two classmates who have something in common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and having students learn to use the tool)

2. Peer Interviews: Have learners interview each other via e-mail and then post introductions for each other.

1 tone climate b thiagi like ice breakers
1. Tone/Climate: Higher EducationB. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

3. Eight Nouns Activity:

1. Introduce self using 8 nouns

2. Explain why choose each noun

3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings

4. Coffee House Expectations

1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations

2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they might be met

(or make public commitments of how they will fit into busy schedules!)

1 tone climate c thiagi like ice breakers
1. Tone/Climate: Higher EducationC. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

  • Public Commitments:

    Have students share how they will fit the coursework into their busy schedules.

  • 99 Seconds of Fame:In an online synchronous chat, give each student 99 seconds to present themselves and field questions.

  • Chat Room Buds:Create a discussion prompt in one of “X’ number of chat rooms. Introduce yourself in the chat room that interests you.

1 tone climate b thiagi like ice breakers1
1. Tone/Climate: Higher EducationB. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

  • Storytelling Cartoon Time:Find a Web site that has cartoons. Have participants link their introductions or stories to a particular cartoon URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate.

  • Favorite Web Site:Have students post the URL of a favorite Web site or URL with personal information and explain why they choose that one.

Tone climate b thiagi like ice breakers
Tone/Climate: Higher Education B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers

10. Scavenger Hunt

1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger hunt (e.g., finding information on the Web)

2. Post scores

11. Two Truths, One Lie

  • Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself

  • Class votes on which is the lie

2 feedback a requiring peer feedback
2. Feedback Higher EducationA. Requiring Peer Feedback


1. Require minimum # of peer comments and give guidance (e.g., they should do…)

2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give templates to complete peer evaluations.

3. Have e-papers contest(s)

2. Feedback: Higher EducationB. Acknowledgement via E-mail, Live Chats, Telephone (Acknowledge questions or completed assignments)

2. Feedback: Higher EducationC. Self-Testing and Self-Assessments(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)

  • Post times when will be available for 30 minute slots, first come, first serve.

  • Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study for.

  • Tell can skip one.

  • Assessment will be a dialogue.

  • Get them there 1-2 minutes early.

  • Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.

  • Ask q’s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.

  • Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.

2 feedback instructor d reflective writing
2. Feedback (Instructor) Higher EducationD. Reflective Writing


  • Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers

  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL

  • Summaries

  • Pros and Cons

    • Email instructor after class on what learned or failed to learn…

      (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23)

3 engagement a annotations and animations metatext ebooks
3. Engagement Higher EducationA. Annotations and Animations: MetaText (eBooks)

3 engagement b electronic voting and polling
3. Engagement: Higher EducationB. Electronic Voting and Polling

1. Ask students to vote on issue before class (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)

2. Instructor pulls out minority pt of view

3. Discuss with majority pt of view

4. Repoll students after class

(Note: Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique: anomymous input till a due date

and then post results and

reconsider until consensus

Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

3 engagement c survey student opinions e g infopoll surveysolutions zoomerang surveyshare com
3. Engagement Higher EducationC. Survey Student Opinions(e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,

4 meaningfulness a job or field reflections
4. Meaningfulness: Higher EducationA. Job or Field Reflections

  • Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job related or field observations

  • Reflect on job setting or observe in field

  • Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from chapter

  • Respond to peers

  • Instructor summarizes posts

    Alternative: Pool field interviews

    of practitioners

4 meaningfulness b case creation and simulations
4. Meaningfulness: Higher EducationB. Case Creation and Simulations

  • Model how to write a case

  • Practice answering cases.

  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field experiences.

  • Link to the text material—relate to how how text author or instructor might solve.

  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.

  • Summarize the discussion in their case.

  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.

    (Note: method akin to storytelling)

5 choice a multiple topics
5. Choice:A. Multiple Topics Higher Education

  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask students to participate in 2 out of 3

  • Provide different discussion “tracks” (much like conference tracks) for students with different interests to choose among

  • List possible topics and have students vote (students sign up for lead diff weeks)

  • Have students list and vote.

5 choice c web resource reviews
5. Choice: Higher EducationC. Web Resource Reviews

5 choice b discussion starter wrapper hara bonk angeli 2000
5. Choice: Higher EducationB. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper(Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)

  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others participate and wrapper summarizes what was discussed.

  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).

    Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper (Alexander, 2001)

    Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or questioner to push student thinking and give feedback

6 variety brainstorming
6. Variety: Brainstorming Higher Education

  • Come up with interesting topic to solve

  • Suggest ideas anonymously or in a chat

  • Encourage spin off ideas

  • Post list of ideas generated

  • Rank or rate ideas and submit to instructor

  • Calculate ave ratings and distribute to group

6 variety b roundrobin
6. Variety: B. Roundrobin Higher Education

  • Select a topic

  • Respond to it

  • Pass answer(s) to next person in group

  • Keep passing until everyone contributes or ideas are exhausted

  • Summarize and/or report or findings

7 curiosity a electronic seance
7. Curiosity: A. Electronic Seance Higher Education

  • Students read books from famous dead people

  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).

  • Present present day problem for them to solve

  • Participate from within those characters (e.g., read direct quotes from books or articles)

  • Invite expert guests from other campuses

  • Keep chat open for set time period

  • Debrief

7 curiosity b electronic guests mentoring
7. Curiosity: Higher EducationB. Electronic Guests & Mentoring

  • Find article or topic that is controversial

  • Invite person associated with that article (perhaps based on student suggestions)

  • Hold real time chat

  • Pose questions

  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change their minds?)

    (Alternatives: Email Interviews with experts

    Assignments with expert reviews)

8 tension a role play
8. Tension: A. Role Play Higher Education

A. Role Play Personalities

  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist, devil’s advocate, etc.)

  • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles)

  • Reassign roles if someone drops class

  • Perform within roles—refer to different personalities

    B. Assume Persona of Scholar

    • Enroll famous people in your course

    • Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions

    • Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic

    • Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own

8 tension b instructor generated virtual debate or student generated
8. Tension: Higher EducationB. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or student generated)

  • Select controversial topic (with input from class)

  • Divide class into subtopic pairs: one critic and one defender.

  • Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic

  • Critics and defenders post initial position stmts

  • Rebut person in one’s pair

  • Reply to 2+ positions with comments or q’s

  • Formulate and post personal positions.

9 interactive a critical constructive friends email pals web buddies
9. Interactive: Higher EducationA. Critical/Constructive Friends, Email Pals, Web Buddies

  • Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on commonalities).

  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders of due dates, help where needed.

  • Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark) as well as suggestions for strengthening.

    In effect, critical friends do not slide over weaknesses, but confront them kindly and directly.

  • Reflect on experience.

9 interactive b symposia press conference or panel of experts
9. Interactive: Higher EducationB. Symposia, Press Conference, or Panel of Experts

  • Find topic during semester that peaks interest

  • Find students who tend to be more controversial

  • Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme

  • Have them prepare statements

  • Invite questions from audience (rest of class)

  • Assign panelists to start

(Alternative: Have a series of press conferences at the end of small group projects; one for each group)

10 goal driven a group problem solving or jigsaw
10. Goal Driven: Higher EducationA. Group Problem Solving or Jigsaw

  • Provide a real-world problem

  • Form a committee of learners to solve the problem

  • Assign a group reporter/manager

  • Provide interaction guidelines and deadlines

    • Brainstorming

    • Research

    • Negotiation

    • Drafting

    • Editing

    • Reflecting

10 goal driven activities a group problem solving
10. Goal Driven Activities Higher Education A. Group Problem Solving

  • Class Study Guide: Have students develop model answers to potential exam questions

  • Be an Expert/Ask an Expert: Have each student choose an area in which to become expert and moderate a forum for the class. Require participation in a certain number of forums (choice)

10 goal driven b gallery tours
10. Goal Driven: Higher EducationB. Gallery Tours

  • Assign Topic or Project

    (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)

  • Students Post to Web

  • Experts Review and Rate

  • Try to Combine Projects

Motivational top ten
Motivational Top Ten Higher Education

1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing

2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions

3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting

4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases

5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper

6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins

7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors

8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy

9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels

10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

Pick One…??? (circle one)

Pick an idea
Pick an Idea Higher Education

  • Definitely Will Use: ___________________________

  • May Try to Use: ___________________________

  • No Way: ___________________________

Questions comments concerns
Questions? Higher EducationComments?Concerns?