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  2. Introduction

  3. You will often be called upon to deliver informal and formal instruction as you achieve higher rank. To be and effective instructor, you must learn: Learning theory Preparation for instruction Techniques for delivery Call to Instruction

  4. Learning Theory

  5. Learning A change in behavior as a result of experience. The behavior can be physical and apparent, or it can be intellectual or attitudinal, not easily seen.

  6. Each student can learn only from that which is experienced. Learning from Experience

  7. Psychological Classificationsof Learning Verbal Conceptual Perceptual Motor Problem solving Emotional Conceptual Verbal Motor Perceptual Problem Solving Emotional

  8. Left Side of the Brain Numbers Logic Word puzzles Analysis Right Side of the Brain Music Imagination Colors Motion Creative expression Brain Stimulation Are you more left-brained or right-brained? Both sides work together during learning, but most people have a dominant brain side.

  9. Learning Plateau As the number of trials increases, the number of errors decreases rapidly until a learningplateau is reached, after which further improvement comes slowly.

  10. Point of Plateau Reaching the point of plateau signifies the learner may have: • Reached the limits of his or her capability • Consolidated the level of skill • Lost a measure of interest • Need for a different method Even so, lack of progress does not mean further learning is impossible.

  11. Learners progress more when motivated by: A strong purpose A clear objective A well-defined reason A student that is ready to learn meets the instructor at least half-way. This simplifies the instructor’s job. Getting Students Ready to Learn

  12. Motivation The drive or desire to do a particular thing.

  13. Nine Major Factorsthat Influence Learning There are nine major factors that influence learning: • New learning takes place in the context of past personal experience. • Learning is dependent upon motivation. • Learning is reinforced through personal exercise.

  14. Nine Major Factors that Influence Learning (Continued) • Learning is facilitated by linking with prior knowledge. • Learning is more efficient when new information is logically related.

  15. Nine Major Factors that Influence Learning (Continued) • Learning is enhanced by providing time for reflection. • Learning is enhanced by sensory and emotional involvement. • Learning occurs best in an environment that enables more than one kind of learning. • Learning requires repetition.

  16. Interpersonal Interactions

  17. Learners must feel secure, accepted, and capable of success for them to: Pay attention Actively participate Participate responsibly Creating a positive learning environment is the instructor’s responsibility. Instructor-student interactions can either improve or hinder learning. Instructor-Student Interactions

  18. Destructive sarcasm Intimidation Boredom Frustration Fatigue Lack of purpose Sense of failure Conditions that Hinder Learning Some of the conditions that hinder learning are:

  19. Error and Failure Differ Errors can help students learn, but failures cannot.

  20. Preparation for Instruction

  21. Prepare for Presentation Adequate preparation is a must for efficient and effective instruction.

  22. Creating a lesson plan is the first step to preparing to instruct. If the lesson has already been planned, the instructor need only become familiar with the plan, and perhaps personalize it. Create or Review the Lesson Plan

  23. For every lesson plan, ask yourself the following questions: What is the intended objective or outcome? Who is the intended audience? What training aids/equipment are needed? What technique for instruction will be used? Format of a Lesson Plan(Part 1 of 2)

  24. Is the outline of material to be presented detailed enough? What means will be used to assess the effectiveness of the instruction? Has a closing or summary been prepared? Format of a Lesson Plan(Part 2 of 2)

  25. Techniques for Instruction

  26. No one instructional technique is perfect for all occasions. Fit the technique to the: Type of material Objective of instruction Nature of the students Your experience and personality One Size Does Not Fit All

  27. Lecture Lecture with audiovisual aids Demonstration Role playing Case study Discussion Cooperative learning Main Methods of Instruction Here is a list of the main methods of instruction: For each method of instruction there are advantages, disadvantages, and prescribed methods.

  28. Lecture A presentation of information, concepts, or principles by a single individual to a group of listeners.

  29. Instructor knows all Students are ignorant about the subject matter During the lecture, students have little opportunity to ask questions or make comments Lecture Assumptions • Application of the lecture method involves the following assumptions:

  30. Lecture Advantages The lecture method is the most efficient instructional method for presenting many facts or ideas in a relatively short time. It is especially good for: • Introducing a subject • Ensuring all have the necessary background information • Giving direction and purpose to a demonstration • Preparing students for discussion • Delivering information when there are many students

  31. Lecture is often useful to supplement, summarize, and/or emphasize material from other sources or information difficult to obtain in other ways. It is good for when students do not have time for research and/or do not have access to reference material. Lecture Usefulness

  32. Lecture Disadvantages There are disadvantages to use of the lecture method. Here are a few disadvantages: • Too many lectures or long lectures without questioning students can cause boredom • Lectures promote student passiveness • Possibility of restating or repeating what the learner already knows from reading a textbook

  33. Lecture is not suited to certain types of learning such as: Speech skills Cooperative group thinking Motor skills Complex concepts and principles Lecture Disadvantages(Continued)

  34. Lecture Disadvantages(Continued) • Hard for the instructor to judge how well the audience is reacting and if the students’ needs and interests are being met • An assumption is that the learners are taking adequate notes and are actively listening

  35. Preparing to Lecture Prepare to lecture by: • Gathering the necessary information • Determining a point of view from which to present the subject • Tailoring the lecture to the students

  36. Three Main Steps to Lecture Introduction Presentation Summary 1 3 2

  37. Three Main Steps to Lecture: Step 1 • Introduction • Introduce yourself • State the objective • Explain the topic relevance to the student • Give an overview of the lecture Introduction 1

  38. Three Main Steps to Lecture: Step 2 Presentation 2. Presentation • Break the larger topics down into smaller parts • Provide examples, explanations, illustrations 2

  39. Three Main Steps to Lecture: Step 3 3. Summary • emphasize and tie together principle points of the lesson, including objectives Summary 3

  40. Guidelines forEffective Use of Lecture Here are some guidelines for effective use of the lecture method: • Know the specific objectives of the topic • Ensure the lecture is well organized • Avoid boring instructing by varying voice stress and intensity • Watch the class actions (attentiveness) to determine effectiveness of the instruction

  41. Examples of Audiovisual Aids Examples of audiovisual aids: • Chalkboard writings • Movies • Overhead projections

  42. Audiovisual Aids CanEnhance Learning The strategy of using audiovisual aids encourages comments and questions from students. A multiple approach through several senses (sight, sound, etc) makes for more complete understanding and greater retention.

  43. Grasping Whole Concepts Frequent use of visual materials by the instructor should help students grasp whole concepts where word explanations are often inadequate. As soon as the object or picture is presented, the word descriptions come into focus with new meaning and lasting effect.

  44. Advantages of Using Lecturewith Audiovisual Aids Using audiovisual aids during lectures is an efficient instructional method for presenting many facts or ideas in a relatively short time. It is particularly suitable for introducing a subject to ensure that all students have the necessary background.

  45. Advantages of Using Lecturewith Audiovisual Aids (Continued) Using audiovisual aids with lecture method is often useful to supplement, summarize, or emphasize material from other sources or to provide information difficult to obtain in other ways, especially complex material. It helps to focus the students’ attention on the specific concept being presented.

  46. Disadvantages of Using Lecturewith Audiovisual Aids There are disadvantages to using the lecture with audiovisual aids method: Not good for development of motor skills Requires considerable skill in speaking on the instructor’s part Assumes active listening and adequate note taking skills on the part of the students

  47. Procedure for Using Lecturewith Audiovisual Aids The delivery technique for a lecture using audiovisuals is similar to the basic lecture method discussed earlier. Introduction Presentation Summary 1 3 2

  48. Demonstration The process wherein one person does something in the presence of others to show them how to do it or to illustrate a principle.

  49. When to Use Demonstration It is often appropriate to use the demonstration method when: • Teaching technique, procedure, or operation to a small group of learners • There is a need to develop students’ ability to operate equipment or acquire physical skills

  50. Advantages of Demonstration Some of the advantages of using the demonstration method include: Adds to learning by giving students the opportunity to see and hear what is actually happening Can be used to illustrate ideas, principles, and concepts for which words are inadequate Usually holds the students’ attention