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Hallucination LSD

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  1. HallucinationLSD Aisha Shah November 5, 2013

  2. Outline • What are hallucinations • What is LSD • Symptoms • Mechanism of Action • Brain activity

  3. What are hallucinations?

  4. What are hallucinations? • The word “hallucinate” comes from Latin words meaning “to wander in the mind.” • Defined as the perception of any of the five senses without the presence of external stimulus. • Hallucinations are generally defined as perceptions without stimuli (Asaad & Shapiro 1986; Brasic 1998; Kolmel 1993)

  5. What is LSD

  6. LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide • Comes from the ergot fungus that feeds off of rye (parasitic) • Lysergic acid is the raw material used to synthesize LSD • Most common way of administration is blotter acid

  7. Symptoms

  8. Symptoms There are four phases of LSD experience

  9. Symptoms Phase 1: onset phase • Lasts about 30-60 minutes • Autonomic activation • Increased body temperature • Increased heart rate • Increased blood pressure • Increased blood glucose levels • Dilation of the pupils • Drowsiness • Nausea

  10. Symptoms Phase II: Somatic phase • Distortions in time perception • Laughter • Euphoria • Mood swings • Giddiness

  11. Symptoms Phase III: Perceptual phase • Visual hallucination • Sensory distortions • Alteration in thought, arousal and self image • Max effect of drug

  12. Symptoms Phases IV: Calm down phase • Effects of drugs are diminished

  13. Symptoms Adverse effects • Panic and paranoid • Flashbacks • Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder Not addicitve

  14. Mechanism of Action

  15. Mechanism of action LSD seems to target the serotonergic system in the brain • 5HT2A,5HT2C, 5HT1C • Specifically the 5HT2A receptors • Researcher are still not sure what the 5HT1C receptor does but it is uniquely potent, doing more than just activating the receptor

  16. Mechanism of action Animal model • Rats trained to press lever A when LSD was given and press lever B when saline vehicle given • Shown that 5HT2A antagonist reduced lever A responses

  17. Mechanism of action In vitro studies • Strong correlation between hallucinogenic potencies and 5HT2 receptor affinities • Correlation coefficient for the 5HT2 receptor was r=0.90 • Correlation coefficient for the 5HT1 receptor was averaged to r=0.79 • No evidence that the 5HT1 receptors caused hallucinogenic effects

  18. What is going on in the brain?

  19. Brain activity Disruption of serotonin activity in thalamus, striatum, and cortex which result in visual hallucinations Over stimulation of these brain areas which is what causes the hallucinations

  20. Brain activity Reticular thalamic nucleus • RTN is responsible for organizing activity in the thalamic relay nuclei • RTN hyperpolarization causes poor sensory transmission