LSD Visions and Nightmares
LSD • Chemical Name- D-lysergic acid diethylamide-25 • Street Names- LSD, acid, cid, micro, micro-dot, window-pane, Vitamin-A, blotter, hits, tabs, sugar, sunshine, dose-a, barrels, heavenly blue, trip, trip-ticket, wedding-bells, liquid-a, etc.
LSD • First synthesized by a Swiss chemist ,Albert Hofmann.
LSD • Its hallucinogenic properties were not known until 5 years later when a small amount of LSD was accidentally absorbed by Hofmann through his skin.
LSD • LSD is a semi-synthetic psychedelic drug derived from the ergot fungus which grows on some plants, primarily rye.
LSD • Only a small amount of ergotamine tartrate is required to produce LSD in large batches. • For example, 25 kg of ergotamine tartrate can produce 5 or 6 kg of pure LSD crystal that, under ideal circumstances, could be processed into 100 million dosage units.
LSD • This is more than enough to meet what is believed to be the entire annual U.S. demand for the drug.
LSD • LSD manufacturers only need to create a small quantity of the substance, and thus they enjoy an ease of transport and concealment not available to traffickers of other illegal drugs (such as cannabis and cocaine).
LSD • Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry.
LSD • LSD is, by weight, one of the most potent drugs yet discovered. Both subjective reports and pharmacological methods such as receptor binding assays determine LSD to be around 100 times more potent than psilocybin and around 4,000 times more potent than mescaline.
LSD • Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of almost all other drugs, both recreational and medical, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram.
LSD • An average LSD dose is anywhere from 25-50 micrograms. In the 1960’s when it was more widely used the doses were between 100-150 micrograms. • Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 15µg.
LSD • LSD is supplied in “hits” or “tabs”. In pure form it is colorless, odorless, and mildly bitter. LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin.
LSD • LSD causes an altered experience of awareness, sense, emotion, and memories for about 8-14 hours.
LSD • The onset is very gradual with the drug reaching its peak effects in about four hours, followed by a two to three hour peak period, and a gradual decline in effect for the next three to four hours.
LSD • In most doses aside from the mood altering effects, it produces hallucinations of geometric patterns, trails behind moving objects, and brilliant colors. • At higher doses it can produce Synaesthesia.
Synaesthesia • Synaesthesia is the condition where one sensory modality gives rise to another sensory modality. This results in correspondence between shades of color, tones of sound, and intensity of taste.
Synaesthesia • Synaesthesia for example might allow one user to see the color red when listening to a certain sound, or a smooth surface might evoke a sweet taste. Users usually describe this as “tasting colors” , or “hearing colors”, or “tasting sounds” etc.
LSD • LSD was widely used as an experimental drug for therapeutic use on mental disorders such as; alcoholism, schizophrenic patients, and manic depressive states in the 1950’s and 1960’s.
LSD • As a matter of fact until 1966 it was provided free of charge to hospitals, and university scientists, doctors, and psychologists. • Both the CIA and MI6 admittedly experimented with LSD as a agent for mind control and large scale social engineering, during this time. (Project MK-ULTRA)
LSD • The test subjects were not informed that they were being given LSD, and had in fact been told that they were participating in a medical project to find a cure for the common cold.
LSD • After keeping the trials secret for many years, MI6 agreed in 2006 to pay the former test subjects financial compensation.
LSD • The criminalization of LSD is attributed to unauthorized recreational use by counter-culture groups in the 1960’s and 70’s. Popularized by counter-culture leaders such as Dr. Timothy Leary.
LSD • Since 1967 underground therapeutic, and recreational LSD use has continued in many countries supported by popular demand and black market availability of the drug. Legal experiments are still conducted in the U.S. but do not involve human test subjects.
LSD • LSD use is relatively uncommon in comparison with use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine and misuse of prescription drugs.
LSD • LSD is primarily used by suburban white males in their late teens and early 20s.
LSD • LSD is characterized by infrequent episodic use culminating in "maturing out" after two to four years.
LSD • Adverse health consequences of LSD are comparatively rare, with "bad trips" being the most common adverse reaction. Nonetheless, severe bad trips are one of the primary reasons people seek or need medical attention whlie “dosing”.
LSD • Although some health consequences may be related to length of use, size of dose, and the interaction of other drugs, there is considerable uncertainty over why LSD adversely affects some individuals more severely than others.
LSD • Despite dire warnings, LSD use doesn't result in mental illness and does not damage genes or chromosomes.
LSD • Black market LSD remains generally unadulterated, although manufacturing by-products do appear. Lower doses generally mean fewer bad trips.
LSD • The dosage level that will produce a threshold hallucinogenic effect in humans is generally considered to be 20–30 μg, with the drug's effects becoming markedly more evident at higher dosages
LSD • Estimates for the lethal dosage of LSD range from 200 μg/kg to more than 1 mg/kg of human body-weight, though most sources report that only one fatal overdose of LSD is documented, in which there were indications that 1/3 of a gram (320 mg or 320,000 µg) had been injected intravenously.
LSD • LSD is not considered addictive, in that its users do not exhibit the medical community's commonly accepted definitions of addiction and physical dependence. As with any psychotropic substance there is a risk of psychological dependence; however, as with most psychedelics, it is relatively low.
LSD • Physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and may include the following: • Uterine contractions • Hyperthermia • Erythrema
LSD • Hyperglycemia • Dry-mouth • Goose bumps • Tachycardia
LSD • Hypertension • Tachypnea • Hyperventilation • Respiratory Alkalosis
LSD • Jaw clenching • Nausea/Vomiting • Perspiration/Diaphoresis • Pupil-dilation • Salivation
LSD • Mucus production • Sleeplessness • Tremors • Cramps and muscle tension or soreness are also fairly commonly reported
LSD • LSD affects all receptor sites including dopaminergic, adrenergic, serotonin, nicotinic, and histamine receptors.