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Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development. Theories of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood. What Are Some Features of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood?. Psychoanalytic Theory Freud’s latency period Erikson’s industry versus inferiority

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Chapter 13 Middle Childhood: Social and Emotional Development

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what are some features of social and emotional development in middle childhood
What Are Some Features of Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood?
  • Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Freud’s latency period
    • Erikson’s industry versus inferiority
  • Social Cognitive Theory
    • Depend less on external rewards and punishments
    • Increase regulation of their behavior
  • Cognitive-Developmental Theory
    • Decrease in egocentrism
    • Capacity to see the perspective of others
what is the relationship between social cognition and perspective taking
What Is the Relationship Between Social Cognition and Perspective Taking?
  • Social cognition
    • Development of knowledge about the world
    • Understanding relationship between self and others
  • Children progress through five levels of perspective taking
how does self concept develop in middle childhood
How Does Self-Concept Develop in Middle Childhood?
  • Focus on external (appearance) to internal characteristics
  • Social relationships and group memberships are significant
how does self esteem develop in middle childhood
How Does Self-Esteem Develop in Middle Childhood?
  • Competence and social acceptance contribute to self-esteem
    • As children begin self appraisal, self-esteem initially declines
  • Gender differences in self-esteem
    • Girls—higher on reading and academics
    • Boys—higher on math, physical ability and physical appearance
  • Influences on self-esteem
    • Parenting style
    • Relationship to parents
    • Social acceptance by peers
what is learned helplessness and how does it develop
What Is Learned Helplessness, and How Does It Develop?
  • Acquired belief one cannot obtain rewards
    • “Helpless child” quits following failure
    • Doubt ability and believe success is based on ability
  • Sex and Learned Helplessness
    • Girls feel more helpless in math and science than business
what kinds of influences are exerted by the family during middle childhood
What Kinds of Influences Are Exerted by the Family During Middle Childhood?
  • Parent-Child Relationships
    • Focus on school-related matters, chores, peer activities
    • Coregulation—transfer of control from parent to child
    • View parents as main source of emotional support
what are the effects of having lesbian or gay parents
What Are the Effects of Having Lesbian or Gay Parents?
  • Research focus
    • Psychological adjustment
      • Comparable to children of heterosexual parents
    • Sexual orientation
      • Prefer toys, clothing and friends typical for their sex and age
      • Generally heterosexual orientation
what are the effects of divorce on children
What Are the Effects of Divorce on Children?
  • Divorce impacts all aspects of family life
    • Difficult to isolate effects of divorce
  • Children of divorce
    • Experience multiple sources of anxiety
    • Experience greatest impact during first year
    • Boys seem to have more difficulty adjusting
  • Decline in quality of parenting and financial status
  • Role of status of mother related to child’s well-being
life in stepfamilies
Life in Stepfamilies
  • No conclusive effects of living in stepfamilies
  • Unique risks in stepfamilies
    • Infanticide occurs 60 times more often in stepfamilies
    • Slightly higher incidence of sexual abuse
should parents who bicker remain together for the children
Should Parents Who Bicker Remain Together for the Children?
  • Parental conflict
    • Linked to problems similar to divorce
  • Adjustment problems
    • Present in children of divorce
    • May be greater in children living with parental conflict
what are the effects of maternal employment on children
What Are the Effects of Maternal Employment on Children?
  • Greatest concern is lack of supervision
  • No evidence of negative effects
  • Some indication of positive effects
    • Greater independence, responsibility and competence
    • More flexible gender roles
what is the impact of peers during middle childhood
What Is the Impact of Peers During Middle Childhood?
  • Socialization Influence
    • Increasing importance of peers
    • Exert pressure to conform
    • Broaden children
  • Difference relating to parents versus peers
  • Some indication of positive effects
    • Peers provide “real-world” practice
what are the characteristics of popular and rejected children
What Are the Characteristics of Popular and Rejected Children?
  • Popular Children
    • Tend to be attractive and mature for age
    • Socially skilled
    • Have higher self-esteem and success
  • Rejected Children
    • Show behavioral and learning problems
    • Are aggressive and disruptive
how do children s concepts of friendship develop
How Do Children’s Concepts of Friendship Develop?
  • Early Middle Childhood
    • Friendships based on proximity, shared activities
  • 8- to 11-year olds
    • Friends are nice to each other and trustworthy
    • Pick friends similar in personality and behavior
  • Tends to be segregated by sex
    • Girls develop closer friendships
what are the effects of school on children s social and emotional development
What Are the Effects of School on Children’s Social and Emotional Development?
  • Entry into school
    • School experience makes multiple demands on children
    • School readiness is determined by
      • Child’s early life experiences
      • Child’s development and learning
      • Reasonable expectations for students
    • Poor health care and lack of support put students at risk
what are the characteristics of a good school
What Are the Characteristics of a Good School?
  • Effective schools have
    • Energetic leadership
    • Empowered teachers and students
    • Orderly atmosphere
    • Academic curriculum with frequent assessment
    • High expectations for students
  • Similar class size

A Closer Look

Bullying—An Epidemic of Misbehavior and Fear

the influence of teachers
The Influence of Teachers
  • On student performance
    • Teacher’s behavior
    • Emotional climate of classroom
  • Teacher expectations
    • Expectations can become self-fulfilling prophesies
  • Sexism in the classroom
    • Girls are treated unequally by teachers, peers, tests, and curriculum
what are conduct disorders
What Are Conduct Disorders
  • Conduct disorders
    • Child consistently breaks rules or violates rights of others
    • Emerge around age 8, more prevalent in boys
    • Tend to endure
  • Origins of conduct disorder
    • Genetic component
    • Inconsistent discipline, antisocial family members, deviant peers
  • Treatment of conduct disorders
    • Cognitive behavioral techniques involving parent training
    • Teach children social, coping and problem-solving skills
what is depression
What Is Depression?
  • Depressed children
    • Show poor appetite, insomnia, difficulty concentrating
    • Loss of self-esteem and interest in people and activities they enjoy
    • Feel hopeless and show thoughts of suicide
  • Origins of depression
    • Low levels of social and academic competence
    • Stressful life events and poor problem solving
    • Attribute failures to internal, stable and global factors
  • Treatment of depression
    • Psychotherapy
    • Antidepressants
what is separation anxiety disorder
What Is Separation Anxiety Disorder?
  • Persistent and excessive separation anxiety
    • Inappropriate for developmental level
    • Interferes with activities
  • Children with SAD
    • Cling to parents and may refuse to attend school
what are the connections between separation anxiety disorder school phobia and school refusal
What Are the Connections Between Separation Anxiety Disorder, School Phobia, and School Refusal?
  • SAD may be expressed as school phobia
  • School phobia—fear of school or refusal to attend
    • May occur outside of presence of SAD
  • School refusal
    • May occur for reasons other than fear or anxiety
  • Treatments
    • Get the child to attend school
    • Cognitive-behavioral approaches
    • Antidepressant medication

Developing in a World of Diversity

Problems? No Problem.

(For Some Children.)