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Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. Psychology 333 Child Psychology Dennis H. Karpowitz. Piaget - Preoperational Stage. Language Make-Believe Play Spatial Representation . Limitations of Preoperational Thought. Rigid thinking Egocentrism Animistic thinking Inability to conserve

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cognitive development in early childhood
Cognitive Developmentin Early Childhood
  • Psychology 333
  • Child Psychology
  • Dennis H. Karpowitz
piaget preoperational stage
Piaget - Preoperational Stage
  • Language
  • Make-Believe Play
  • Spatial Representation.
limitations of preoperational thought
Limitations of Preoperational Thought
  • Rigid thinking
  • Egocentrism
  • Animistic thinking
  • Inability to conserve
  • Transductive reasoning
  • Difficulties with hierarchical classification
recent research on preoperational thought
Recent Research on Preoperational Thought
  • Unfamiliar
  • Complex
  • Illogical thought
  • Hierarchical classification
  • Appearance versus reality.
evaluation of the preoperational stage
Evaluation of thePreoperational Stage
  • Familiar
  • Gradually more logic
  • Training helps
piaget and education
Piaget and Education
  • Discovery learning
  • Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn
  • Acceptance of individual differences.
vygotsky s sociocultural theory
Vygotsky’s SocioculturalTheory
  • Children’s private speech
    • Piaget’s view
    • Vygotsky’s view
  • Social origins of early childhood cognition
    • Intersubjectivity
    • Scaffolding.
vygotsky and education
Vygotsky and Education
  • Active participation
  • Acceptance of individual differences
  • Assisted discovery
  • Peer collaboration
  • Cooperative learning experiences.
information processing
Information Processing
  • Attention
  • Memory
    • Less effective at using memory strategies
    • Rehearsal
    • Organizing
    • Episodic memory >> autobiographical memory
    • Scripts become increasingly complex
  • Application to child sexual abuse cases
young child s theory of mind
Young Child'sTheory of Mind
  • Metacognition
  • Development:
    • “Think,” “remember,” “pretend”
    • Beliefs and desires
    • False beliefs
  • Similarities across cultures
where does the theory of the mind originate
Where does the Theoryof the Mind Originate?
  • Early forms of communication
  • Joint attention & social referencing
  • Imitation & modeling
  • Language
  • Social interaction
limitations of the child s theory of the mind
Limitations of the Child’sTheory of the Mind
  • Process thinking de-emphasized
  • Outcome thinking emphasized
  • Mind as a passive container of info.
early literacy
Early Literacy
  • Understand written language
  • Emergent literacy
  • Writing as a direct representationof people and objects
  • Experience is the key.
mathematical reasoning
Mathematical Reasoning
  • Ordinality
  • Cardinality
individual differences
Individual Differences
  • Verbal and nonverbal
  • Cultural bias in testing issues
  • Home environment > rich instimulating experiences
  • >64% of Mothers of young childrenare employed.
preschools
Preschools
  • Part-time learning and developing centers
  • Child centered preschools
  • Academic preschools
    • May undermine motivation & emotional well-being
  • At-Risk-Preschoolers
    • Project Head Start
day care
Day Care
  • Full-time development centers
    • 17% High Quality
  • Poor quality day care results in
    • Lower cognitive abilities
    • Lower social abilities
day care quality
Day Care Quality
  • Stability & continuity of teachers/programs
  • Group size
  • Caregiver/child ratio
  • Caregiver’s education
  • Caregiver’s personal commitment
  • Safe and stimulating environment
educational television
Educational Television
  • Boys watch more TV than girls
  • Low SES watch more TV than middle SES
  • “Sesame Street” is effective
    • May widen gap between advantagedand disadvantaged
sesame street
Sesame Street

HI

Advantaged

Ability

Disadvantaged

Low

Time

language development
Language Development
  • Fast mapping
  • Mutual exclusivity myth
  • Syntactic bootstrapping
  • From simple sentences tocomplex grammar
    • Overregularization
    • Semantic bootstrapping.
conversation
Conversation
  • Pragmatic
  • Face-to-face
  • Older siblings help
  • Less mature in low queue situations
adult help with language
Adult Help with Language
  • Give-and-take opportunities
  • Sensitive caring adults - feedback
    • Explicit feedback
    • Avoid overcorrection
  • Adult expansions
  • Adult recasts..