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Chapter 3. Federalism. Federalism in the Constitution. The word federalism is absent from the Constitution!! Yet it is explained in detail: 1. Guarantees states equal representation in the Senate 2. Makes states responsible for both state and national elections

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Chapter 3

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chapter 3

Chapter 3


federalism in the constitution
Federalism in the Constitution

The word federalism is absent from the Constitution!!

Yet it is explained in detail:

1. Guarantees states equal representation in the Senate

2. Makes states responsible for both state and national elections

3. Virtually guarantees the continuation of each state

4. National government is required to protect states against violence and invasion

5. Supremacy Clause (Article VI)

6. Judges in every state are specifically told to obey the US Constitution even if their state constitutions or state laws directly contracts it

7. Reserved Powers (10th Amendment)

states obligations to each other article iv of the constitution
States Obligations to Each otherArticle IV of the Constitution

1. Full Faith and Credit (Article IV) requires states to give credit to public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings of every other state

2. Extradition almost all criminal law is state law; states are required to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment

3. Privileges and Immunities prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states (exceptions are college tuition, state elections)

powers of the government
Powers of the Government
  • Inherent:
  • Enumerated:
  • Reserved:
  • Implied:
  • Denied:

How is federalism is addressed in America’s History?Establishing National Supremacy:Four Key events have largely settled the issue of how national and state powers are related

implied powers article 1 section 8 clause 18
Implied Powers (Article 1 Section 8: clause 18)

-- McCulloch V. Maryland, 1819

  • Supremacy of the national government over states
  • National government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers
  • Congress has the power to “make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers”
  • Necessary and proper clause is like a rubber band (flexible—elastic clause)
  • I.e. Regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, protect consumers, clean up dirty air and water, etc.
commerce power article i section 8
Commerce Power: (Article I Section 8)
  • Congress regulates interstate and international commerce
  • Gibbons V. Ogden defines commerce very broadly to encompass virtually every form of commercial activity

  • U.S. V. Lopez restricts interstate commerce for US government

  • All implications for federalism
civil war what is about slavery or federalism
Civil War: What is about slavery or federalism?
  • 1861-1865
  • Settled federalism and settled slavery
  • Struggle between states and national government
struggle for racial equality
Struggle for Racial Equality
  • Brown V. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas
  • Supreme Court held that school segregation was unconstitutional
  • Conflict between states and national government over equality issues was decided in favor of the national government
  • National standards for racial equality prevailed
types of federalism
Types of Federalism
  • Dual V. Cooperative
  • Fiscal
cooperative federalism at work
Cooperative Federalism at work
  • 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act
  • Blurred federalism by supporting public elementary and secondary education
  • Before this, states controlled education
  • 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act gave federal aid to numerous schools

Standard operating procedures:

1. Shared costs

2. Federal guidelines

3. Shared administration

fiscal federalism
Fiscal Federalism
  • Pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
  • Grants-in-aid, federal funds appropriated by Congress for distribution to state and local governments are the main instrument the national government uses for both aiding and influencing states and localities
  • The Grant system-distributing the federal pie
  • You should know the following types of grants: VOCAB

--Categorical Grants --Formula Grants

--Mandates --Block Grants

the scramble for federal
The Scramble for Federal $
  • $350 million in federal grants dispersed a year to states and localities
  • Mandates: requirements that direct states or local governments to comply with federal rules under threat of penalties or as a condition or receipt of a federal grant
  • Problems with mandates: Problems occur when Congress passes a law creating financial obligations for the states but provides no funds to meet those obligations
  • Examples: Americans with Disabilities Act, Clean Air Act, No Child Left Behind Act
federalism and democracy

More participation in politics

Increases access to government


States differ in resources they can devote to services like public education

The sheer number of governments can be a burden

(87,000 in the USA)

Federalism and Democracy