Muslim EmpiresShort Version World History Jacobs
D11 Essential Questions • How were the cultural achievements of the Europeans during the Renaissance comparable to those of the Ottomans and Mughals/Moguls at the same time? • How do maps increase understanding of the Ottomans and Safavids? How are cultural regions defined over time?
Background • The Arabs: • Live on the Arabian Peninsula (desert lacking rivers& lakes) • Moved constantly to find food & water • Were farmers & sheep herders • The life of Muhammad: (570-632 C.E.) • Messages were sent to him as he prayed • Muhammad only had 30 followers until he took a trip to Medina (known as Hirjah) • He was a religious & political leader
Background • The Teachings of Muhammad: • Muslims are MonotheisticEmphasis on salvation & offers hope of an afterlife • Muhammad is considered a prophet but just a man • Five Pillars of Islam: • Belief, prayer, charity, fasting, & pilgrimage • Creation of an Arab Empire after Muhammad: • Abu Bakr-Muhammad- Muhammed’s father in-law named Caliph or successor • Muslims expanded across Arabia • Umayyad: • 661 Mu’awiyah became Caliph & made the position based on heredity • Help spread Arab power to East Mesopotamia, Persia, & Central Asia
Background • Abbasid Dynasty: 750-1258 • Descendant of Muhammad (uncle) overthrew Umayyad • Built capital @ Baghdad (center of trade empire into Asia, Africa, & Europe) • Seljuk Turks: (Fatimid dynasty) 11th -13th Centuries • Strong army hired non-native soldiers • Grew into Iran & Armenia • Sultan= holder of power • The Mongols (not Muslim): • Led by Genghis Khan in N. China • Hated Islam but eventually convert to Islam & intermarry • Threaten Seljuk’s on Anatolian Peninsula……………………
Things to look for: • Key terms will be in yellow (copy these down) • Geographical areas will be in red • Key people will be in white
Who were the Ottoman Turks? • The Ottoman dynasty began in the late thirteenth century when Turks under their leader Osmanwere given land in the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsulaby the Seljuk Turks in return for helping fight against the Mongols. • The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims
Ottoman Government and Expansion • Ottoman rulers claimed the name of sultan (same as a king) • More of a political title than a religious one but sultans didn’t answer to anyone but God • For the next three hundred years, Ottoman rule expanded into areas of Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe
Istanbul not Constantinople • In the 15th century the Ottomans took aim at Constantinople, a Byzantine city • April 6, 1453: Ottomans attacked Constantinople • May 29, 1453: After almost two months the Ottomans breached the walls of Constantinople • ConstantinopleIstanbul • Tiny Toons: Istanbul not Constantinople!!!
Ottoman Empire Expansion • Stronghold in Constantinoplegood base of operations for expanding into Europe,WesternAsia, and Africa • By 1514 controlled holy cities of Jerusalem, Mecca, and Madinah • Then moved along African coast of Med. Sea • At same time moving north from Constantinople into Europe
Janissaries • (pgs 242-243) • Sultans had an elite military guard called Janissaries • Name given to a soldier in Muslim ruler’s(i.e. sultan’s) services • Made up of 10-20y.o. Christian boys in the territories the Ottomans conquered • Forced to convert to Islam • Trained as foot soldiers or administrators who served sultan
Devshirme • Devshirme-boy levy • Boys were chosen on good looks and physical build • Brought to Istanbul and trained • Smartest were taught Turkish, Persian, Arabic • Also…literature, history, and the Qur’an • But strict discipline • Once they were ~25 became Janissaries
Süleyman-The Magnificent • Ottoman ruler from 1520-1566 • Brilliant and organized military strategist • Doubled the size of the Ottoman Empire in 46 years • Encouraged growth of architecture and fine arts • Played key role in European politics during this time SAME TIME AS RENAISSANCE
Süleyman • Had to execute own sons and best friend • Known as the Lawgiver-reformed gov’t, eliminated corruption, and treated subjects fair • Brought prosperity to empire • Same time as Charles V in Germany and Martin Luther----Charles V was too concerned with Luther and Reformation that he did not pay enough attention to Suleyman and the Ottomans advances into Europe
Süleyman • “His dignity of demeanor and his general physical appearance are worthy of the ruler of so vast an empire.”
Safavid Dynasty 1500-1700’sOverview • Islamic empire at same time as Ottoman’s • Located in what is now Iran and Azerbaijan • Founded by Shah Ismail • Were Shiite Muslims • Safavid’s were Shiite, Ottoman Empire was mostly Sunni • RecallHow are Shiite and Sunni Muslims different?
Answer: • Shiites reject rule by anyone who is not an heir to Muhammad.
Safavid DynastyOverview • Safavid’s were ethnic Persians • There were some Turks under their rule but most were Persian • During dynasty there were conflicts with the Ottomans (Sunni’s) to the west and the Mogul’s to the east in India
Mogul Empire 1500’s-1700’s Overview • The Mogul Empire was an Islamic gunpowder empire located in India from the 1500s to the 1700s AD • Same time as the Ottoman’s and Safavid’s • Founders of dynasty weren’t from India but area north of Indus River Valley (descendents of Mongols) • Founded by man named Babur • Using advanced weapons but small well-trained forces he conquered India and parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan
Moguls The Moguls were not very tolerant of other religions especially Hinduism which was expanding throughout India at the time Leaders outlawed Hindu practices such as suttee Eventually the Mogul Empire will fall to the British as the British try to expand their power around the world and control trade to and from India. India will come under British control until the 20th century
Moguls • Some leaders in the Mogul Empire also took the Persian/Safavid title of shah • Shah Jahan built the TajMahal in Agra in the 1600’s to honor his dead wife • The building blends Indian and Persian cultures
Review: Copy this chart on your own sheet of paper and fill it in with the information you learned