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Chapter 1: Geography, History, & the Social Sciences

Chapter 1: Geography, History, & the Social Sciences. Pgs. 2-33. Label composition book…. Timeline Activity Number #1-5. On your own… ( p . 3). 4. In what physical region of the United States do we live ? 5. In what ways do you think the physical regions differ ?.

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Chapter 1: Geography, History, & the Social Sciences

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  1. Chapter 1: Geography, History, & the Social Sciences Pgs. 2-33

  2. Label composition book… • Timeline Activity • Number #1-5

  3. On your own… (p. 3) • 4. In what physical region of the United States do we live? • 5. In what ways do you think the physical regions differ?

  4. Section 1 ObjectivesThinking Geographically • Explain how the 5 themes of geography help define the connections between geography & history. • Discuss how geography influenced population trends in U.S. history. • Describe how maps are made & used. • Preview Reading Focus Questions (p. 4) • Homework • Answer questions & define key terms

  5. Geography & History • How might these 2 terms be related? • Why does a study of history begin with geography? • Discuss with those around you (2 minutes) • Be ready to give an answer to either question

  6. Five Themes of Geography • Geography: • The study of people, their environment, & their resources • Used to show connections of the natural environment and how they affect people & events

  7. Location • Where is it? • Where did it happen? • Absolute Location • Longitude & latitude (coordinates) • Relative Location • Help explain why people settled where they did or why a battle took place where it did • Online skills tutor

  8. Place • What is it like? • What are the physical and human features of a place? • Physical: • Climate, soil, vegetation, animal life, bodies of water • Human ideas/actions: • Housing, transportation, language, ways of earning a living, religion • U.S. history is directly affected by people & their relationship to their environment & natural resources. • Natural resources: material that humans can take from the environment to survive & satisfy their needs

  9. Interaction • How do people adapt to their environment? • Hunters  plant seed • Migration  settlement • How do people change their environment? • Irrigation: a method of bringing water to dry lands • Changes landscape & history • New water supply  village  towns  cities

  10. Movement • Why and how do people travel from place to place? • How do people exchange goods & ideas? • People & resources are scattered unevenly around the world.

  11. Regions • What physical features are similar in the area? • Regions • Climate, landforms • What human features are similar in the area? • Chinatown • Little Italy

  12. Case Studies • Open text to page 7 for help… • During the 1840s, approximately 15,000 Mormons traveled more than 1,000 miles from IL to UT where they settled in the Great Salt Lake Valley. Because the area was a dry, hot desert, they built an irrigation system that allowed them to farm in the desert. Over time, they were able to preserve their religion and their way of life. At 41°N/112°W, they built Salt Lake City. • Discuss this passage in terms of the 5 themes of geography.

  13. Quick Check (5 minutes) • How could irrigation change history? • What are 2 ways to describe the location of a place? • What are the 5 themes of geography? • What geographic theme would be most concerned with trade among nations?

  14. Maps & Globes • Map Projections • Cartographers • Robinson vs. Mercator (p. 8) • Types of Maps • Physical • Political • Thematic • Climate • Economic activity • Rainfall • Natural resources Online Skills Tutor

  15. Class Work/Homework • Pg. 10 Skills • Read over #1-5 Learn the Skill • In composition book answer #1-5 Practice the Skill • Make sure assignment is clearly labeled & work is completed neatly • Read Ch. 1 S2 pgs. 11-17

  16. Section 2 ObjectivesLands & Climates of the U.S. • Identify the main physical regions of the U.S. • Explain how rivers and lakes affect American life • Describe how climates vary across the U.S. • Preview Reading Focus Questions (p.11) • Homework • Answer questions & define key terms

  17. “America the Beautiful” • Listen to the song: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LINsNCaxZ5U • Is it an accurate and complete description of the United States?

  18. American Rivers • Mississippi River • Missouri River • Longest & most important river systems in the U.S. • This includes their tributaries: a stream or smaller river that flows into a larger one • Ohio • Tennessee • Arkansas • Platte • Provide water for farmlands of the Interior Plains • Means of transportation

  19. Other important rivers/lakes • Colorado • Hudson • Rio Grande • St. Lawrence • Great Lakes • Superior • Michigan • Huron • Erie • Ontario

  20. Physical Regions of the U.S. • Pacific Coast • Intermountain • Rocky Mountains • Interior Plains • Ozark Highlands • Appalachian Mountains • Canadian Shield • Coastal Plains • Hawaiian Islands

  21. Climate vs. Weather • The U.S. has 10 types of climates. • 2 features that define climate are temperature & precipitation • Location & altitude also influence its climate • Climate is what we expect to happen, weather is what actually happens • Maryland is a perfect example • We expect cold weather in January, but every now and then we get a warm day. We do not expect it to be warm, but it does happen occasionally.

  22. Climates of the U.S. • Marine • Mediterranean • Highland • Desert • Steppe • Humid Continental • Tropical • Humid Subtropical • Tundra • Subarctic

  23. Quick Check (5 minutes) • 1. What are the 2 most important river systems in the U.S.? • 2. Through what 3 physical regions does the Mississippi River flow? • 3. How do rivers & lakes benefit the economy of the U.S.?

  24. Class Work/Homework • Using the maps on pgs. 12 & 16 and the text on pgs. 12-14 & 16-17 create a chart. • Label chart “Physical Regions of the United States” • You will need 3 columns. The entire chart will be 3x9. • Label first column: Regions • Label second column: Characteristics • Label third column: Climate • For each Physical Region list it in the first column. Then, list at least 3 characteristics of that region in the second column. For column 3 you will need to use the maps in order to list ALL of the climate regions that exist within that particular physical region. • We will do the first one together. • You may also work in small groups of your choice.

  25. Section 3 ObjectivesThe Tools of History • Explain how historians evaluate and interpret historical evidence • Discuss how archaeologists add to our knowledge of history • Explain what we can learn about history by understanding chronology and eras • Preview Reading Focus (p. 20) • Homework • Answer questions & define key terms

  26. Define in your own words: • Rumor • (n.): A currently circulating story or report of uncertain or doubtful truth: "they were investigating rumors of a massacre” • (v.): Be circulated as an unverified account: "it's rumored that he lives on a houseboat"; "she is rumored to have gone into hiding" • Hearsay • (n.): Information received from other people that cannot be adequately substantiated; rumor • (v.): The report of another person's words by a witness, usually disallowed as evidence in a court of law.

  27. Using Historical Evidence • History: the study of people in different times and places • Historians use different tools to study the past • Primary Sources: give firsthand information about people or events • Diaries, letters, speeches, photos, videos • Secondary Sources: written after the event by people who were not there

  28. 3 Steps to Evaluating Evidence (Primary Sources) • Authenticity: whether or not the source is actually what it seems to be • Reliability: whether or not the source gives an accurate account of the events being described • Bias: a leaning toward or against a certain person, group, or idea • What contributes to bias? • Cultural background • Personal experience • Economic status • Political beliefs

  29. Interpreting Evidence • Historians try to determine the causes of a certain development or event • Understanding why things happened in the past may help us understand what is going on today & what may happen tomorrow! • Historians may interpret the same evidence in different ways. • Interpretations can also change over time.

  30. Archaeologists Uncover the Past • Artifacts help historians learn about ancient cultures & are the building blocks of archaeology. • Pottery • Tools • Bones • Most evidence used to study American history is in the written form, however, some archaeologists focus on cultures that existed before the arrival of Europeans.

  31. Chronology • History is divided into eras, or major periods of time. • Chronology: • Puts events in the order in which they happened • Helps people understand the connections between events.

  32. Quick Check (5 minutes) • 1. What 2 types of evidence do historians study? • 2. Why is it useful to organize history into eras? • 3. What steps must a historian take to evaluate historical evidence?

  33. Section 4 ObjectivesEconomics & Other Social Sciences • Identify the basic questions economists ask about society • Discuss the benefits of free society • Explain how the social sciences can support the study of history • Preview Reading Focus (p. 26) • Homework • Answers questions & define key terms

  34. Make a 2 column chart • Column 1: List at least 10 goods that people buy & sell. • Column 2: Identify the kinds of stores where you would buy each of the goods you mentioned.

  35. Who owns these stores?

  36. Economic Questions • Economics is the study of how people use limited resources to survive and to satisfy their wants and needs • A society MUST answer 3 basic economic questions: • 1. What goods and services should be produced? • 2. How should we produce these goods and services? • 3. For whom should we produce goods and services?

  37. Our economy • People need food, shelter and clothing. • Some resources may remain after these basic needs are met. • These resources can be used to make other goods. • Today, factories produce most products. • Cash economy: exchange money for goods and services • Income determines the goods and services a consumer can buy

  38. American Free Enterprise System • Free enterprise: • Government plays a limited role in the economy • Businesses are owned by private citizens (decision making power) • Competition is encouraged or best product at lowest price • Framers of the Constitution believed the prosperity of the nation depended on a free market economy • Allows consumer freedom • Encourages invention and investment • Limit government interference

  39. Other Social Sciences • Economics is only one of the social sciences • Political Science • Study of government • Civics • Rights and responsibilities of citizens • Anthropology • Examines how people and cultures develop • Sociology • Study of how people behave in groups • Psychology • Looks at how people think and feel

  40. Quick Check (5 minutes) • 1. What are the 3 basic economic questions every society must answer? • 2. Which term refers to an economic system where ownership of goods is private? • 3. List at least 2 benefits that a free enterprise system offers to consumers? • 4. How could psychology support the study of history?

  41. Reminders • Composition books will be collected on: • Test on:

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