“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” Waste water treatment and pollution control in industrial sector Lessons learned in the Netherlands
“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” Organizations Institutions Governments Committees } ISO EMS Other rules To preserve EM IPPC directive impose BAT ENVIRONMENT WWT Impacts on: - water - air - soil - noise Measures regarding: - water treatment - waste management - eco-efficiency - achieve low levels of EM pollution - lower energy consumption Producers / Companies Actions – most of all that affect the environment in different ways
“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” About Waste Water Treatments Usually, the waste water treatments follows the next general stages: 1. Physical stage: with procedures like: - gravitational separation (centrifugation) - flotation - transfer between phases - filtration - distillation - screening - freezing 2.Chemical stage: with procedures like: - neutralization (PH correction; by adding acids or bases in the water) - oxidation and reduction - coagulation and flocculation - ion exchange 4. Disinfection: is necessary in case of used waters that contain microorganisms. It's different than sterilization, because disinfection doesn't destroy all the microorganism within the waters. Methods used: thermic method and irradiation 3. Biological stage: with procedures like: - aerobic treatment: with air, in open tanks - anaerobic treatment: without air, in closed spaces
“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” BAT in practice Masterfoods – Oud Beijerland - foods, sausages producer Water treatment consist in: - removing TSS from water by screening and filtration (2 steps process). - removing of oils, fatty acids from water by using natural separation. - neutralization of water by using techniques of PH correction. - pollution control of waters by taking samples at certain times and analyzed them to achieve an allowed level of emissions within the water. (ex: COD, BOD, TSS, PH, ammonium, phosphorus etc) - TSS are burned for energy - discharging water in the public sewers for further treatments at municipality facilities. Nutricia – Zuitermeer - producer of baby foods (only liquid foods; organic) Water treatment consist in: - removing TSS from water by using coarse screening - removing of oils, fatty acids from water by using natural separation - mixing wastewater with mud (sludge) in order to proceed to aerobic stage - aerobic stage: water is aerated by using floating turbines at the water surface in order to facilitate chemical and biological reactions in the water - removing mud from the water to be dried and packaged (use as fertilizer) - take samples at specific times for COD, BOD, PH etc. - discharging water Contec – Tecuci - producer of fruit and vegetables tins Water treatment consist in: - removing TSS from water using screening and filtration - removing oils and fats by sedimentation / separation - neutralization of water: PH correction using bases or acids – depending on PH values - pollution control by analyzing samples from the water at certain times (COD, BOD, PH etc) - TSS are used as fertilizer in agriculture - discharging water in public sewage system
“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” Strengths (S) Masterfoods and Nutricia: - two relative new companies with state of the art technology available - International companies with a lot of resources at their disposal - Investments in measures to protect environment - Treated water is sent to the municipality treatments for further cleaning - High level of automatically systems All companies: - no impact on soil during the in-site treatments Nutricia: - to supervise the water treatments they contracted another company Conclusions using SWOT analysis Weakness (W) Contec: - old company with relative old technologies. - Regional to national company with less resources. - After the preliminary treatments water is discharged into public sewers system. All companies: - the noise from their installation - sometimes odor from the water treatments facilities could be unpleasant
“Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” Opportunities (O) Masterfoods and Nutricia: - due to the fact that they already comply with the European laws they don't have to do anything in order to change something at this moment. - they had already implemented concepts like eco-efficiency and water management Contec: - there is a lot to improve here, from the obsolete installations, water management system, water consumption, to the increase of efficiency in water treatments using methods environment-friendly Conclusions using SWOT analysis Threats (T) Contec: - if they don't implement a system for water treatments capable to achieve the new standards the factory can be closed or can go bankrupt due to the high taxes.
1. An insight view on IPPC directive and his BAT's (Best Available Techniques): what it is, what is good for, when or how to use BAT's etc. 2. The necessity for a good environment from all points of view regarding the water, air, soil, noise and so on. 3. We learned about techniques that are available to use it in different companies in order to protect as much as possible the environment. 4. We've seen part of this techniques working very well in real life with good efficiency and with low costs. 5. We learned to identify the issues on environment from a company activity and how some eco-management concepts are applicable to correct those issues; also we tried to give some recommendations in order to solve those issues. 6. We learned to analyze and synthesize the issues, the problems that the Dutch and Romanian enterprises are confronted in their activity regarding the environment field 7. Finally, we learned something about how to implement or how to adapt the strategies of Romanian companies to eco-management and eco-efficiency demands. “Vocational Education and Training in Eco - Management field” Summary learned lessons in NL: