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CT PBS Training Day 2. Regina Oliver State Education Resource Center. Brandi Simonsen University of Connecticut. Objectives for Day 2. By the end of today, you will be able to… …identify evidence based classroom management practices
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CT PBS TrainingDay 2 Regina Oliver State Education Resource Center Brandi Simonsen University of Connecticut
Objectives for Day 2 By the end of today, • you will be able to… • …identify evidence based classroom management practices • …describe the escalation model and interventions at each point • When to teach • When to encourage/redirect • When to emphasize safety • you will have a revised action plan to guide your next months of implementation
Advance Organizer • 9:00-9:15 Introduction and Overview • 9:15-10:00 Practices and systems for classroom settings • 10:00-10:15 Break • 10:15-10:30 Set up for action planning • 10:30-12:00 Team action planning related to classroom settings • 12:00-12:45 Lunch (provided) • 12:45-2:00 Escalating and/or Crisis Situations • 2:00-3:00 Action planning • 3:00 Team reports and wrap up
How is My Classroom Management? 7r Brandi Simonsen, Sarah Fairbanks, Amy Briesch, & George Sugai University of Connecticut Center on Behavioral Education and Research
Purpose Review critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings Goal: Review of basics & context for self-assessment
Informal & untaught Reactive & ineffective Disconnected from SW Lack of staff fluency Lack of durability Lack of instructional fluency Classroom Management Challenges
Why formalize classroom management? Arrange environment to maximize opportunities for • Academic achievement • Social success • Effective & efficient teaching
Guiding Principle #1 “Pupil achievement & behavior can be influenced (for better or worse) by the overall characteristics of the school environment” Rutter & Maughan, 2002
Guiding Principle #2 To affect incidence & prevalence of antisocial behavior, we must increase availability, adoption, & sustained use of validated practice Biglan, 1995
Guiding Principle #3 Use what we know about behavior of individuals to affect behavior & organization of communities, & create a common vision, language, & experience for all members of the community Biglan, 1995; Horner, 2002
Guiding Principle #4 • Remember that good teaching one of our best behavior management tools • Active engagement • Positive reinforcement
Apply three tiered prevention logic to classroom setting • Primary for all • Secondary for some • Tertiary for a few
Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Organizational Features Common Vision ORGANIZATION MEMBERS Common Experience Common Language
School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems
Link classroom to school-wide • School-wide expectations • Classroom v. office managed rule violations
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Build systems to support sustained use of effective practices • SW leadership team • Regular data review • Regular individual & school action planning
Effective classroom managers 1 Minute Attention Please • 7 minutes (pick recorder & spokesperson) • What do effective classroom managers do daily? • 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management • Maximize structure in your classroom. • Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Actively engage students in observable ways. • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Sugai, in progress)
1. Maximize structure in your classroom. • Develop Predictable Routines • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc. • Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. • Designate staff & student areas. • Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Establish behavioral expectations/rules. • Teach rules in context of routines. • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. • Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do. • Publicly post the rules. • Should match SW Expectations
Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules • Operationally define what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your school. • One way to do this is in a matrix format.
Teach Rules in the Context of Routines • Teach expectations directly. • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine. • Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine. • Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding. • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule • Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc). • Use pre-corrections, which include “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings were problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).
Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context • Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997): • Move around • Look around (Scan) • Interact with students • Provide reinforcement and specific praise to students who are following rules. • Catch errors early and provide specific, corrective feedback to students who are not following rules. (Think about how you would correct an academic error.)
Evaluate the effect of instruction • Collect data • Are rules being followed? • If there are errors, • who is making them? • where are the errors occurring? • what kind of errors are being made? • Summarize data (look for patterns) • Use data to make decisions
3. Actively engage students in observable ways. • Provide high rates of opportunities to respond • Vary individual v. group responding • Increase participatory instruction • Consider various observable ways to engage students • Written responses • Writing on individual white boards • Choral responding • Gestures • Other: ____________ • Link engagement with outcome objectives
Task dimensions(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004, p. 52) New? Familiar? Old? • History • Response form • Modality • Complexity • Schedule • Variation Yes/No? Choice? Production? Oral? Motor? Written? Easy? Hard? Abbreviated? Extended? Varied? Unvaried?
Task dimensions continued(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004) • Consider task dimensions. • Which is more likely to occasion problem behavior? • How would you use this information to redesign the environment for a given student? • A • History: New • Response Form: Production • Modality: Written • Complexity: Hard • Schedule: Extended • Variation: Unvaried • B • History: Old • Response Form: Yes/No • Modality: Oral • Complexity: Easy • Schedule: Abbreviated • Variation: Varied
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Specific and Contingent Praise • Group Contingencies • Behavior Contracts • Token Economies
Specific and Contingent Praise • Praise should be… • …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior • …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future • “Good job” (not very specific) • “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
Group Contingencies • Three types: • “One for all” (Dependent Group Contingency) • “All for one” (Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency) • “To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
Further Remarks on Group Contingencies (Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 1999) • Group contingencies can be an efficient way to reinforce desired behaviors. • Without careful monitoring, potentially harmful situations can arise: • Peer pressure can turn into ridicule • Negative stigma or social status can result • May or may not be fair to all clients • So, monitor closely and apply the contingencies consistently and systematically.
Consequence: Behavioral Contracts • A written document that specifies the contingency for an individual student. • Contains the following elements: • Operational definition of BEHAVIOR • Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS • OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations. • Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation. (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970) • Payoff (reward) should be immediate. • Initially call for and reward successful approximations. • Reward frequently with small amounts. • Call for and reward accomplishments. • Reward the performance after it occurs (i.e., do not bribe the learner). (As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970) • The contract must be fair. • The terms must be clear. • The contract must be honest. • The contract must be positive. • Contracting must be used systematically (and consistently). (As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)
Establishing a Token Economy • Determine and teach the target skills • Select tokens • Identify what will be back-up reinforcers • Identify the number of tokens required to receive back-up reinforcers • Define and teach the exchange and token delivery system • Define decision rules to change/fade the plan • Determine how the plan will be monitored Guidelines from Sulzer-Azarodd & Mayer, 1991
Positive acknowledgements 1 Minute Attention Please • Take 5 minutes • Identify 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies to positively acknowledge student behavior in classroom • Report sample from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. • Respond efficiently • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence