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CT PBS Training Day 2. Regina Oliver State Education Resource Center. Brandi Simonsen University of Connecticut. Objectives for Day 2. By the end of today, you will be able to… …identify evidence based classroom management practices

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ct pbs training day 2

CT PBS TrainingDay 2

Regina Oliver

State Education Resource Center

Brandi Simonsen

University of Connecticut

objectives for day 2
Objectives for Day 2

By the end of today,

  • you will be able to…
    • …identify evidence based classroom management practices
    • …describe the escalation model and interventions at each point
      • When to teach
      • When to encourage/redirect
      • When to emphasize safety
  • you will have a revised action plan to guide your next months of implementation
advance organizer
Advance Organizer
  • 9:00-9:15 Introduction and Overview 
  • 9:15-10:00 Practices and systems for classroom settings
  • 10:00-10:15 Break
  • 10:15-10:30 Set up for action planning
  • 10:30-12:00 Team action planning related to classroom settings
  • 12:00-12:45 Lunch (provided)
  • 12:45-2:00 Escalating and/or Crisis Situations
  • 2:00-3:00 Action planning
  • 3:00 Team reports and wrap up
how is my classroom management

How is My Classroom Management?

7r

Brandi Simonsen, Sarah Fairbanks,

Amy Briesch, & George Sugai

University of Connecticut

Center on Behavioral Education and Research

purpose
Purpose

Review critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings

Goal: Review of basics & context for self-assessment

classroom management challenges
Informal & untaught

Reactive & ineffective

Disconnected from SW

Lack of staff fluency

Lack of durability

Lack of instructional fluency

Classroom Management Challenges
why formalize classroom management
Why formalize classroom management?

Arrange environment to maximize opportunities for

  • Academic achievement
  • Social success
  • Effective & efficient teaching
guiding principle 1
Guiding Principle #1

“Pupil achievement & behavior can be influenced (for better or worse) by the overall characteristics of the school environment”

Rutter & Maughan, 2002

guiding principle 2
Guiding Principle #2

To affect incidence & prevalence of antisocial behavior, we must increase availability, adoption, & sustained use of validated practice

Biglan, 1995

guiding principle 3
Guiding Principle #3

Use what we know about behavior of individuals to affect behavior & organization of communities, & create a common vision, language, & experience for all members of the community

Biglan, 1995; Horner, 2002

guiding principle 4
Guiding Principle #4
  • Remember that good teaching one of our best behavior management tools
    • Active engagement
    • Positive reinforcement
slide13
Apply three tiered prevention logic to classroom setting
    • Primary for all
    • Secondary for some
    • Tertiary for a few
continuum of school wide instructional and positive behavior support
Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

~5%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~15%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~80% of Students

designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

organizational features
Organizational Features

Common Vision

ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

Common Experience

Common Language

slide17

School-wide Positive

Behavior Support

Systems

Classroom

Setting Systems

Nonclassroom

Setting Systems

Individual Student

Systems

School-wide

Systems

slide18
Link classroom to school-wide
    • School-wide expectations
    • Classroom v. office managed rule violations
slide19

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

slide20
Build systems to support sustained use of effective practices
    • SW leadership team
    • Regular data review
    • Regular individual & school action planning
effective classroom managers
Effective classroom managers

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • 7 minutes (pick recorder & spokesperson)
  • What do effective classroom managers do daily?
    • 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies
  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
evidence based practices in classroom management
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management
  • Maximize structure in your classroom.
  • Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.
  • Actively engage students in observable ways.
  • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.
  • Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.

(Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Sugai, in progress)

1 maximize structure in your classroom
1. Maximize structure in your classroom.
  • Develop Predictable Routines
    • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc.
    • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc.
  • Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction:
    • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.
    • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.
    • Designate staff & student areas.
    • Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
2 post teach review monitor and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations
2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations.
  • Establish behavioral expectations/rules.
  • Teach rules in context of routines.
  • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context.
  • Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback.
  • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
establish behavioral expectations rules
Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules
  • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do.
  • Publicly post the rules.
  • Should match SW Expectations
slide28

Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules

  • Operationally define what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your school.
  • One way to do this is in a matrix format.
teach rules in the context of routines
Teach Rules in the Context of Routines
  • Teach expectations directly.
    • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine.
    • Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine.
  • Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding.
  • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.
prompt or remind students of the rule
Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule
  • Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc).
  • Use pre-corrections, which include “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings were problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).
monitor students behavior in natural context
Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context
  • Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997):
    • Move around
    • Look around (Scan)
    • Interact with students
  • Provide reinforcement and specific praise to students who are following rules.
  • Catch errors early and provide specific, corrective feedback to students who are not following rules. (Think about how you would correct an academic error.)
evaluate the effect of instruction
Evaluate the effect of instruction
  • Collect data
    • Are rules being followed?
    • If there are errors,
      • who is making them?
      • where are the errors occurring?
      • what kind of errors are being made?
  • Summarize data (look for patterns)
  • Use data to make decisions
3 actively engage students in observable ways
3. Actively engage students in observable ways.
  • Provide high rates of opportunities to respond
    • Vary individual v. group responding
    • Increase participatory instruction
  • Consider various observable ways to engage students
    • Written responses
    • Writing on individual white boards
    • Choral responding
    • Gestures
    • Other: ____________
  • Link engagement with outcome objectives
task dimensions darch kame enui 2004 p 52
Task dimensions(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004, p. 52)

New? Familiar? Old?

  • History
  • Response form
  • Modality
  • Complexity
  • Schedule
  • Variation

Yes/No? Choice? Production?

Oral? Motor? Written?

Easy? Hard?

Abbreviated? Extended?

Varied? Unvaried?

task dimensions continued darch kame enui 2004
Task dimensions continued(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004)
  • Consider task dimensions.
  • Which is more likely to occasion problem behavior?
  • How would you use this information to redesign the environment for a given student?
  • A
  • History: New
  • Response Form: Production
  • Modality: Written
  • Complexity: Hard
  • Schedule: Extended
  • Variation: Unvaried
  • B
  • History: Old
  • Response Form: Yes/No
  • Modality: Oral
  • Complexity: Easy
  • Schedule: Abbreviated
  • Variation: Varied
4 establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior.
  • Specific and Contingent Praise
  • Group Contingencies
  • Behavior Contracts
  • Token Economies
specific and contingent praise
Specific and Contingent Praise
  • Praise should be…
    • …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior
    • …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future
      • “Good job” (not very specific)
      • “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
group contingencies
Group Contingencies
  • Three types:
    • “One for all” (Dependent Group Contingency)
    • “All for one” (Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency)
    • “To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
further remarks on group contingencies
Further Remarks on Group Contingencies

(Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 1999)

  • Group contingencies can be an efficient way to reinforce desired behaviors.
  • Without careful monitoring, potentially harmful situations can arise:
    • Peer pressure can turn into ridicule
    • Negative stigma or social status can result
    • May or may not be fair to all clients
  • So, monitor closely and apply the contingencies consistently and systematically.
consequence behavioral contracts
Consequence: Behavioral Contracts
  • A written document that specifies the contingency for an individual student.
  • Contains the following elements:
    • Operational definition of BEHAVIOR
    • Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS
    • OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations.
    • Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation.

(Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)

ten basic rules for behavioral contracting homme csanyi gonzales rechs 1970
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970)
  • Payoff (reward) should be immediate.
  • Initially call for and reward successful approximations.
  • Reward frequently with small amounts.
  • Call for and reward accomplishments.
  • Reward the performance after it occurs (i.e., do not bribe the learner).

(As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)

ten basic rules for behavioral contracting homme csanyi gonzales rechs 197047
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970)
  • The contract must be fair.
  • The terms must be clear.
  • The contract must be honest.
  • The contract must be positive.
  • Contracting must be used systematically (and consistently).

(As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)

establishing a token economy
Establishing a Token Economy
  • Determine and teach the target skills
  • Select tokens
  • Identify what will be back-up reinforcers
  • Identify the number of tokens required to receive back-up reinforcers
  • Define and teach the exchange and token delivery system
  • Define decision rules to change/fade the plan
  • Determine how the plan will be monitored

Guidelines from Sulzer-Azarodd & Mayer, 1991

positive acknowledgements
Positive acknowledgements

1 Minute

Attention

Please

  • Take 5 minutes
  • Identify 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies to positively acknowledge student behavior in classroom
  • Report sample from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
5 establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior.
  • Respond efficiently
  • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior
  • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence
slide51

Quick error corrections and redirect to appropriate behavior

  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Planned ignoring
  • Response Cost
  • Time out from reinforcement
quick error corrections
Quick Error Corrections
  • Your error corrections should be…
    • …contingent: occur immediately after the undesired behavior
    • …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing incorrectly and what they should do differently in the future
    • …brief: after redirecting back to appropriate behavior, move on
types of differential reinforcement
Types of Differential Reinforcement
  • DR…of lower rates of behavior (DRL)
  • DR…of other behaviors (DRO)
  • DR…of alternative behavior (DRA)
  • DR…of incompatible behavior (DRI)
planned ignoring
Planned Ignoring

Definition:

  • If a behavior is maintained by adult attention…consider planned ignoring (e.g., ignore behavior of interest)

Example:

  • Taylor talks out in class and his teacher currently responds to him approximately 60% in the time (either + or -).
  • The teacher decides to ignore all talk outs and instead only call on him when his hand is raised.
response cost
Response Cost

Definition:

  • The withdrawal of specific amounts of a reinforcer contingent upon inappropriate behavior. This is an example of ________ punishment.

Examples:

  • A wrong answer results in a loss of points.
  • Come to class without a pencil, buy one for 5 points.
time out
Time-out

Definition:

  • A child is removed from a previously reinforcing environment or setting, to one that is not reinforcing

Example:

  • Child throws a rock at another child on the playground. The child is removed to the office….
  • REMEMBER the environment the child is removed to cannot be reinforcing!!! So, if the child receives lots of adult attention in the office, which they find reinforcing, YOU have NOT put the child on time out
evidence based behavior classroom management practices
Evidence Based Behavior & Classroom Management Practices

SeeClassroom Management Self-Checklist(7r)

and

Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management Handout

how did you do
How did you do?

10-13 “yes” = Super

7-10 “yes” = So So

<7 “yes” = Improvement needed

non example action plan strategies
Non-example Action Plan Strategies
  • Purchase & distribute classroom management curriculum/book
  • Discuss at faculty meeting
  • Bring in CM expert for next month’s ½ day in-service
  • Observe in effective classroom

What is likelihood of change in teacher practice?

example action plan strategies
Example Action Plan Strategies

+ Build on SW System

+ Use school-wide leadership team

+ Use data to justify

+ Adopt evidence based practice

+ Teach/practice to fluency/automaticity

+ Ensure accurate implementation 1st time

+ Regular review & active practice

+ Monitor implementation continuously

+ Acknowledge improvements

classroom management action planning
Classroom ManagementAction Planning
  • 90 minutes
  • Review “Classroom Management Self-Assessment” & discuss possible practices/systems applications
  • At the end of the day, we will ask you to report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team’s action planning(2 min. reports). So, think ahead…
advance organizer66
Advance Organizer

1. Understanding Escalation

2. Verbal De-escalations

slide68

What assignment?

Jason, please turn in your assignment.

The assignment you didn’t finish during class.

I finished it.

Great, please turn it in now.

I don’t have it with me now.

You have a choice…..turn it in or do it again.

You never believe me.

I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again.

Make me.

That’s disrespect…go to the office.

F_____ you!

Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder.

Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

purpose69
PURPOSE
  • Enhance our understanding of and ways of responding to escalating behavior sequences.
    • Student <=> Teacher
    • Teacher <=> Teacher
    • Teacher <=> Parent
    • Child <=> Parent
    • Teacher <=> Administrator
    • Etc., etc., etc….

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

assumptions
ASSUMPTIONS
  • Behavior is learned (function).
  • Behavior is lawful (function).
  • Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice).
  • Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

functions
Functions

Pos Reinf

Neg Reinf

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

outcomes
OUTCOMES
  • Identification of how to intervene early in an escalation.
  • Identification of environmental factors that can be manipulated.
  • Identification of replacement behaviors that can be taught (& serve same function as problem).

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model
The MODEL

High

Peak

Acceleration

De-escalation

Agitation

Trigger

Calm

Recovery

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model74
The MODEL

High

Low

CALM



(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

1 calm
1. Calm
  • Student is cooperative.
    • Accepts corrective feedback.
    • Follows directives.
    • Sets personal goals.
    • Ignores distractions.
    • Accepts praise.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

slide76
Calm
  • Intervention is focused on prevention.
    • Assess problem behavior
      • Triggers
      • Function
      • Academic & behavioral learning history
    • Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements.
    • Use positive reinforcement.
    • Teach social skills.
      • Problem solving
      • Relaxation strategy
      • Self-management
    • Communicate positive expectations.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model77
The MODEL

High

TRIGGER



Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

2 trigger
2. Trigger
  • Student experiences a series of unresolved conflicts.
    • Repeated failures
    • Frequent corrections
    • Interpersonal conflicts
    • Timelines
    • Low rates of positive reinforcement
    • Or other antecedent for problem behavior identified in FBA

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

trigger
Trigger
  • Intervention is focused on prevention & redirection.
    • Consider function of problem behavior in planning/implementing response.
    • Remove from or modify problem context.
    • Increase opportunities for success.
    • Reinforce what has been taught.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model80
The MODEL

High

AGITATION

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

3 agitation
3. Agitation
  • Student exhibits increase in unfocused behavior.
    • Off-task
    • Frequent start/stop on tasks
    • Out of seat
    • Talking with others
    • Social withdrawal

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

agitation
Agitation
  • Intervention is focused on reducing anxiety.
    • Consider function of problem behavior in planning/implementing response.
    • Make structural/environmental modifications.
    • Provide reasonable options & choices.
    • Involve in successful engagements.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model83
The MODEL

High

ACCELERATION

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

4 acceleration
4. Acceleration
  • Student displays focused behavior.
    • Provocative
    • High intensity
    • Threatening
    • Personal

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

acceleration
Acceleration
  • Intervention is focused on safety.
    • Remember:
      • Escalations & self-control are inversely related.
      • Escalation is likely to run its course.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

acceleration86
Acceleration
  • Remove all triggering & competing maintaining factors.
  • Follow crisis prevention procedures.
  • Establish & follow through with bottom line.
  • Disengage from student.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model87
The MODEL

High

PEAK

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

5 peak
5. Peak
  • Student is out of control & displays most severe problem behavior.
    • Physical aggression
    • Property destruction
    • Self-injury
    • Escape/social withdrawal
    • Hyperventilation

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

slide89
Peak
  • Intervention is focused on safety.
    • Procedures like acceleration phase, except focus is on crisis intervention

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model90
The MODEL

High

DECELERATION

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

6 de escalation
6. De-escalation
  • Student displays confusion but with decreases in severe behavior.
    • Social withdrawal
    • Denial
    • Blaming others
    • Minimization of problem

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

de escalation
De-escalation
  • Intervention is focused on removing excess attention.
    • Don’t nag.
    • Avoid blaming.
    • Don’t force apology.
    • Consider function of problem behavior.
    • Emphasize starting anew.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model93
The MODEL

High

RECOVERY

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

7 recovery
7. Recovery
  • Student displays eagerness to engage in non-engagement activities.
    • Attempts to correct problem.
    • Unwillingness to participate in group activities.
    • Social withdrawal & sleep.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

recovery
Recovery
  • Follow through with consequences for problem behavior.
  • Positively reinforce any displays of appropriate behavior.
  • Intervention is focused on re-establishing routines activities.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

recovery96
Recovery
  • Debrief
    • Purpose of debrief is to facilitate transition back to program….not further negative consequence
    • Debrief follows consequences for problem behavior.
    • Goal is to increase more appropriate behavior.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

recovery97
Recovery
  • Problem solving example:
    • What did I do?
    • Why did I do it?
    • What could I have done instead?
    • What do I have to do next?
    • Can I do it?

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

the model98
The MODEL

High

Peak

Acceleration

De-escalation

Agitation

Trigger

Calm

Recovery

Low

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

slide99

What assignment?

Jason, please turn in your assignment.

The assignment you didn’t finish during class.

I finished it.

Great, please turn it in now.

I don’t have it with me now.

You have a choice…..turn it in or do it again.

You never believe me.

I guess you’ve made the choice to do it again.

Make me.

That’s disrespect…go to the office.

F_____ you!

Moves closer…& puts hand on J. shoulder.

Pulls away, glares, & raises fist as if to strike.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

three key strategies
THREE KEY STRATEGIES
  • Identify how to intervene early in an escalation.
  • Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated.
  • Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught & serve similar function.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

final thought
FINAL THOUGHT
  • Geoff Colvin (1989):
    • It is always important to remember that “if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.”

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

understanding noncompliant defiant behavior
Understanding Noncompliant/Defiant Behavior
  • What can happen when student engages in noncompliance?
    • Avoids/loses request/activity
    • Gains/loses teacher attention
    • Gains/loses peer attention
    • Loses academic engagement

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

slide103
What can happen when teacher confronts noncompliant behavior?
    • Teacher gets/loses student attention
    • Teacher removes student
    • Teacher gains/loses peer attention
    • Teacher loses instructional minutes

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

assumptions about compliant noncompliant behaviors
Assumptions about Compliant & Noncompliant Behaviors
  • Are learned.
  • Require more than one person.
  • Get better/worse with practice.
  • Given that, we can identify and avoid coercive cycles (next slide).

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

coercive cycles

(e.g., Patterson, multiple years; Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004)

Coercive cycles

Student

Exhibits

Problem

Behavior

aversive

escape

aversive

What’s going on for the student?

What’s going on for the teacher?

What’s happens in the future?

Who’s in control of the situation?

aversive

Teacher

Gives

Demand

Teacher

Removes

Demand

Student

Terminates

Problem

Behavior

escape

aversive

teaching compliance
Teaching Compliance
  • Students must
    • Be fluent at expected behavior.
    • Be taught conditions under which the expected behavior is required.
    • Have multiple opportunities for high rates of successful academic & social engagement.
    • Receive or experience frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

slide107
Teachers must…
    • Have student’s attention, before presenting the directive or making a request.
    • Give clear, specific, positively stated directives.
    • Provide frequent & positive acknowledgments when expected behavior is exhibited.
    • Have established & taught consequence procedures for repeated noncompliance.

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

escalating behavior
Escalating Behavior

1 Minute

Spokesperson

Attention

Please

  • 10 minutes
  • Review features & steps of “Escalating Behavior” model
  • Discuss extent to which escalating behavior is or could be issue in the settings in which you’ve worked
  • Identify 2-3 strategies & systems for addressing escalating behavior
  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)

(Colvin & Sugai, 1989)

crisis interventions a last resort
Crisis Interventions…A Last Resort
  • Now that we understand how escalations happen…we can talk about crisis interventions.
  • Even with the best plans, you still need to answer the question, “What happens if my plan fails?”
  • Typically the answer is your crisis intervention plan.
  • Whenever you have to fall back on this, realize that it is a treatment failure and go back to closely evaluating the plan.
choosing an appropriate response
Obnoxious

Simple Assault (e.g., threats)

Assault and Battery (e.g., contact made

Aggravated Assault (e.g., repeted kicks, blows, etc.)

BSPs

Crisis Communication

Evasion

Restraint

Choosing an Appropriate Response

Student Behavior

Intervention

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

verbal de escalation112
Verbal De-escalation
  • We use verbal de-escalation, or Crisis Communication, when the observed behavior constitutes a simple assault. That is, we use it when
    • a person has the ability to injure,
    • a person has the position to injure (i.e., proximity), and
    • a person has the desire to injure
    • but the threatened injury would not be serious enough to require medical attention.
  • examples: realistic threats to slap, pinch, bite, etc.

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

general principles of verbal de escalation
General Principles of verbal de-escalation:
  • Self Control
  • Identification (of signals that predict assault)
  • Communication
    • Simple, Direct, & Brief
    • Rule of Five (<5 words with <5 letters)
  • Patience
  • Spontaneity
  • Timing
  • Function Based Strategies

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

1 self control
1. Self Control
  • We all need a plan to maintain self-control during a crisis (and other times too).
  • Typically, your body reacts to a crisis in a “fight or flight” response.
  • Our goal is to counteract that response by remaining calm and regaining “balance.”

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

teaching self control
Teaching Self Control
  • The following is an activity sequence you may choose to use with your staff.
  • To the extent that you are able to have them…
    • identify specific, observable, and measurable strategies and
    • use those strategies in the natural situation

…this will be an effective exercise.

developing self control
Developing Self-Control

The first step is knowing yourself:

  • Think about how you feel now.
    • How is your breathing?
    • How is your vision/focus?
    • How is your heart rate?

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

fight or flight responses
Fight or Flight Responses
  • How do you feel when stressed?
  • Complete the following table.

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

knowing your limits
Knowing your limits
  • What would you do if you under or over reacted?
  • What habits do you display under stress that would make the situation worse?

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

developing a self control plan
Developing a Self-Control Plan
  • The next step is designing a plan that will allow you to maintain professional behavior.
  • Create a concrete plan (i.e., observable, measurable, & specific steps) to maintain your self-control.

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

my self control plan develop a plan that will work for you
My Self-Control PlanDevelop a plan that will work for you.

Identify observable, measurable, & specific steps

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

restoring balance and managing stress
Restoring Balance and Managing Stress
  • You also need to think about different habits that you can develop that will allow you to manage your stress and maintain “emotional balance.”
  • Think about three categories of habits:
    • What you will do immediately after incident.
    • What you will do after work.
    • Life-style habits.

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

broader plan
Broader Plan

Identify observable, measurable, & specific steps

Adapted from Smith et al. (2000)

2 identification of signals
2. Identification of Signals
  • How would you know when a situation is a crisis?
  • How would you predict when a student is going to engage in crisis-level, or unsafe, behavior?
  • Observation is key to preventing incidents and maintaining safety.
observation
Observation
  • You may observe in many ways:
    • Informal observations (e.g., watching student on playground)
    • Formal observations (e.g., frequency data, ABC cards, formal observations)
  • You learn from these observations:
    • Informal observations are often discussed meetings, supervisions, etc.
    • Formal observations are analyzed in the context of Functional Behavioral Assessments and used to develop Positive Behavior Intervention Plans.
3 responding verbal communication
3. Responding VerbalCommunication
  • Keep communication simple, direct, and brief
  • Rule of 5 (in general, use sentences ≤ 5 words and words ≤ 5 letters)
  • Give choices
  • Redirect to appropriate behavior and what can be earned.
4 patience
4. Patience
  • Remind yourself, no crisis will last forever and engage in specific strategies to assist you in remaining calm
    • Step 10 feet back from the student
    • Ask another adult to supervise the class
    • Interact with another student
    • Take a drink of water
5 spontaneity
5. Spontaneity

“Slim Shady”

One of the Neag SOE students was transitioning her students to the bus. She had a little guy in her class who pulled his hood over his head, told her he was “Slim Shady,” fell on the floor, and refused to transition. What would you do?

She initially tried to force compliance. “You need to get up.” (Does that typically work?)

Then, she was spontaneous and said, “Would the real Slim Shady please stand up, please stand up, please stand up.”

He got up and rejoined the class, crisis averted.

6 timing
6. Timing
  • Recall the phases of escalation and choose your communication based on the phase indicated by the student’s current behavior.
  • Silence is OK at times too.
7 function based strategies
7. Function Based Strategies
  • How would understanding the function of a student’s behavior assist you in using verbal de-escalation?
our goal is to prevent crises
Our goal is to PREVENT crises
  • As always, we want to prevent crisis situations through designing our environments to ensure that appropriate behaviors are more relevant, efficient, and effective than inappropriate behaviors at meeting a students needs (i.e., escape/avoid aversive or get/obtain)
big ideas from crisis de escalation

High

Peak

Acceleration

De-escalation

Agitation

Trigger

Calm

Recovery

Low

Big Ideas from Crisis De-Escalation
  • Self-Control
  • Identification,
  • Communication
  • Patience
  • Spontaneity
  • Timing
  • Function Based Strategies
action planning
Action Planning
  • 60 minutes
  • Review “Understanding Escalation” & discuss possible practices/systems applications
  • At the end, we will ask you to report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team’s action planning for the day (2 min. reports). Be prepared to share ideas from both classroom management and crisis de-escalation
team reports
Team Reports

Attention

Please

2 Minutes

Spokesperson

big ideas for day 2
Big Ideas for Day 2
  • You should now be able to…
    • …identify evidence based classroom management practices
    • …describe the escalation model and interventions at each point
      • When to teach
      • When to encourage/redirect
      • When to emphasize safety
  • You should also have a revised action plan to guide your next months of implementation
refer a friend
Refer a Friend

Talk to your district about schools that will be ready to start SWPBS next year.

questions comments
Questions/Comments?
  • Have a great summer!
  • We’ll see you next year!
    • 3 times for teams
    • 3 times for coaches