CT PBS TrainingDay 2 Regina Oliver State Education Resource Center Brandi Simonsen University of Connecticut
Objectives for Day 2 By the end of today, • you will be able to… • …identify evidence based classroom management practices • …describe the escalation model and interventions at each point • When to teach • When to encourage/redirect • When to emphasize safety • you will have a revised action plan to guide your next months of implementation
Advance Organizer • 9:00-9:15 Introduction and Overview • 9:15-10:00 Practices and systems for classroom settings • 10:00-10:15 Break • 10:15-10:30 Set up for action planning • 10:30-12:00 Team action planning related to classroom settings • 12:00-12:45 Lunch (provided) • 12:45-2:00 Escalating and/or Crisis Situations • 2:00-3:00 Action planning • 3:00 Team reports and wrap up
How is My Classroom Management? 7r Brandi Simonsen, Sarah Fairbanks, Amy Briesch, & George Sugai University of Connecticut Center on Behavioral Education and Research
Purpose Review critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings Goal: Review of basics & context for self-assessment
Informal & untaught Reactive & ineffective Disconnected from SW Lack of staff fluency Lack of durability Lack of instructional fluency Classroom Management Challenges
Why formalize classroom management? Arrange environment to maximize opportunities for • Academic achievement • Social success • Effective & efficient teaching
Guiding Principle #1 “Pupil achievement & behavior can be influenced (for better or worse) by the overall characteristics of the school environment” Rutter & Maughan, 2002
Guiding Principle #2 To affect incidence & prevalence of antisocial behavior, we must increase availability, adoption, & sustained use of validated practice Biglan, 1995
Guiding Principle #3 Use what we know about behavior of individuals to affect behavior & organization of communities, & create a common vision, language, & experience for all members of the community Biglan, 1995; Horner, 2002
Guiding Principle #4 • Remember that good teaching one of our best behavior management tools • Active engagement • Positive reinforcement
Apply three tiered prevention logic to classroom setting • Primary for all • Secondary for some • Tertiary for a few
Continuum of School-Wide Instructional and Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Organizational Features Common Vision ORGANIZATION MEMBERS Common Experience Common Language
School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems
Link classroom to school-wide • School-wide expectations • Classroom v. office managed rule violations
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Build systems to support sustained use of effective practices • SW leadership team • Regular data review • Regular individual & school action planning
Effective classroom managers 1 Minute Attention Please • 7 minutes (pick recorder & spokesperson) • What do effective classroom managers do daily? • 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
Evidence Based Practices in Classroom Management • Maximize structure in your classroom. • Post, teach, review, monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Actively engage students in observable ways. • Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Briesch, & Sugai, in progress)
1. Maximize structure in your classroom. • Develop Predictable Routines • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc. • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc. • Design environment to (a) elicit appropriate behavior and (b) minimize crowding and distraction: • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow. • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas. • Designate staff & student areas. • Seating arrangements (groups, carpet, etc.)
2. Post, Teach, Review, Monitor, and reinforce a small number of positively stated expectations. • Establish behavioral expectations/rules. • Teach rules in context of routines. • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context. • Monitor students’ behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback. • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.
Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules • A small number (i.e., 3-5) of positively stated rules. Tell students what we want them to do, rather than telling them what we do not want them to do. • Publicly post the rules. • Should match SW Expectations
Establish Behavioral expectations/Rules • Operationally define what the rules look like across all the routines and settings in your school. • One way to do this is in a matrix format.
Teach Rules in the Context of Routines • Teach expectations directly. • Define rule in operational terms—tell students what the rule looks like within routine. • Provide students with examples and non-examples of rule-following within routine. • Actively involve students in lesson—game, role-play, etc. to check for their understanding. • Provide opportunities to practice rule following behavior in the natural setting.
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context
Prompt or Remind Students of the Rule • Provide students with visual prompts (e.g., posters, illustrations, etc). • Use pre-corrections, which include “verbal reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or demonstrations of rule-following or socially appropriate behaviors that are presented in or before settings were problem behavior is likely” (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).
Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context • Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997): • Move around • Look around (Scan) • Interact with students • Provide reinforcement and specific praise to students who are following rules. • Catch errors early and provide specific, corrective feedback to students who are not following rules. (Think about how you would correct an academic error.)
Evaluate the effect of instruction • Collect data • Are rules being followed? • If there are errors, • who is making them? • where are the errors occurring? • what kind of errors are being made? • Summarize data (look for patterns) • Use data to make decisions
3. Actively engage students in observable ways. • Provide high rates of opportunities to respond • Vary individual v. group responding • Increase participatory instruction • Consider various observable ways to engage students • Written responses • Writing on individual white boards • Choral responding • Gestures • Other: ____________ • Link engagement with outcome objectives
Task dimensions(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004, p. 52) New? Familiar? Old? • History • Response form • Modality • Complexity • Schedule • Variation Yes/No? Choice? Production? Oral? Motor? Written? Easy? Hard? Abbreviated? Extended? Varied? Unvaried?
Task dimensions continued(Darch & Kame’enui, 2004) • Consider task dimensions. • Which is more likely to occasion problem behavior? • How would you use this information to redesign the environment for a given student? • A • History: New • Response Form: Production • Modality: Written • Complexity: Hard • Schedule: Extended • Variation: Unvaried • B • History: Old • Response Form: Yes/No • Modality: Oral • Complexity: Easy • Schedule: Abbreviated • Variation: Varied
4. Establish a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior. • Specific and Contingent Praise • Group Contingencies • Behavior Contracts • Token Economies
Specific and Contingent Praise • Praise should be… • …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior • …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future • “Good job” (not very specific) • “I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
Group Contingencies • Three types: • “One for all” (Dependent Group Contingency) • “All for one” (Interdependent Group-Oriented Contingency) • “To each his/her own” (Independent Group Contingency)
Further Remarks on Group Contingencies (Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 1999) • Group contingencies can be an efficient way to reinforce desired behaviors. • Without careful monitoring, potentially harmful situations can arise: • Peer pressure can turn into ridicule • Negative stigma or social status can result • May or may not be fair to all clients • So, monitor closely and apply the contingencies consistently and systematically.
Consequence: Behavioral Contracts • A written document that specifies the contingency for an individual student. • Contains the following elements: • Operational definition of BEHAVIOR • Clear descriptions of REINFORCERS • OUTCOMES if student fails to meet expectations. • Special BONUSES that may be used to increase motivation or participation. (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988)
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970) • Payoff (reward) should be immediate. • Initially call for and reward successful approximations. • Reward frequently with small amounts. • Call for and reward accomplishments. • Reward the performance after it occurs (i.e., do not bribe the learner). (As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)
Ten Basic Rules for Behavioral Contracting(Homme, Csanyi, Gonzales, & Rechs, 1970) • The contract must be fair. • The terms must be clear. • The contract must be honest. • The contract must be positive. • Contracting must be used systematically (and consistently). (As stated in Alberto & Troutman, 1999, pp. 249-250)
Establishing a Token Economy • Determine and teach the target skills • Select tokens • Identify what will be back-up reinforcers • Identify the number of tokens required to receive back-up reinforcers • Define and teach the exchange and token delivery system • Define decision rules to change/fade the plan • Determine how the plan will be monitored Guidelines from Sulzer-Azarodd & Mayer, 1991
Positive acknowledgements 1 Minute Attention Please • Take 5 minutes • Identify 2-3 formal & 2-3 informal strategies to positively acknowledge student behavior in classroom • Report sample from your team discussion (1 min. reports)
5. Establish a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior. • Respond efficiently • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence