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Biotechnology Biology 2008-2009
Technology:the application of scientific advances to benefit humanity Biotechnology: The use of living organisms or their products (example:milk) to make or modify a new substance. During this biotechnology unit we will be using the knowledge we have built about chemistry and biology to discover new uses for living organisms. Some of this information may be uncomfortable to hear about. I ask that you learn with an open mind, but use your values and judgments to better understand the current scientific culture.
Genetic Tranformation • how the genes from one living organism can be transferred to another living organism • why genetic transformation is being done • pros and cons of genetic transformation • pGlo Lab: Genetically Transformed E.Coli Bacteria Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) • why organisms are genetically modified • examples of organisms that are genetically modified • pros and cons to genetically modified organisms Cloning • how is a living organism cloned • examples of organisms that are being cloned • pros and cons of cloning any living organism
Genetic Transformation The Genetic Creation of Glowing Bacteria Genetic Transformation: Change caused by genes; inserting the genes from one organism into another organism Green Flourescent Protein (GFP): The protein created in the jellyfish when the gene for bioluminescence (glowing) is expressed
Plasmid: Circular piece of DNA in a bacterial cell; can be passed from one bacteria to another easily; usually contains genes for traits beneficial to survival. LB:Luria Broth; food for the bacteria so that they can multiply quickly (clone themselves)
Antibiotic: drug that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria Ampicillin:A type of antibiotic that destroys E.Coli under normal conditions pGLO: GFP gene & Antibiotic Resistance gene Arabanose:Sugar that “turns on” the GFP gene • You will recognize the flow chart below which represents protein synthesis (gene expression). Complete flow chart #1 and then use this information to complete flow chart #2. • 1. DNA → RNA → protein→ Genetic Characteristic (Trait) • 2. DNA → RNA → GFP → bioluminescence (glowing)
Materials 7 sterile loops 1 petri dish (LB) 6 sterile pipettes 2 petri dishes (LB/Amp) 2 small collection tubes 1 petri dish (LB/Amp/Ara) 1 floating foam antibacterial soap 1 sharpie masking tape Ice bath Warm water bath (42^C) Incubator (37^C) Safety • Wash hands thoroughly before and after lab. • Wash hands immediately after any handling of the bacteria. • Report any spills to the teacher immediately. • Dispose of all contaminated loops, pipettes, and collection tubes in the designated trash cans. • For additional information about E.Coli refer to the supplemental poster.
Pre-Lab Questions 1. To genetically transform an entire organism, you must insert the new gene into every cell in the organism. Would a bacteria or a human be easier to genetically transform? bacteria 2. List two examples of why bacteria are more easily transformed than a human. 1. Single celled; only need to change the DNA of one organism to change its traits. 2. Multiply quickly so that we can see a result quickly
Predictions Four Petri dishes will be used to grow bacteria under different conditions. There will be abbreviations on each Petri dish to help explain the conditions under which the bacteria will be grown. What does each abbreviation mean? • LB: Luria Broth (bacteria food) • Amp: Ampicillin (antibiotic that destroys E.Coli) • Ara: Arabanose (sugar that turns GFP gene on) • +pGLO: Contains GFP gene and Antibiotic Resistance Gene • -pGLO: Does not contain “new” genes; regularbacteria
GMOs : Genetically Modified Organisms • Computer Exploration • Objectives! • Define GMOs and Genetic Engineering • Identify 7 steps to Genetic Engineering • Provide examples of how Genetic Engineering is being used • Identify GMO foods and why they have been genetically altered • Identify one Pro and one Con for Genetically Modified Organisms • Extra Credit: Computer simulation of Selective Breeding vs. Transgenic Manipulation
Making a Clone (in 6 easy steps!) Step One:An egg cell (female gamete) is collected and the nucleus containing the genetic information for that organism is removed. Egg Cell Egg Cell without a nucleus
Step Two: A cell is collected from the organism you wish to clone and the nucleus is removed. Skin Cell
Step Three:The nucleus from the adult skin cell is placed in the empty egg cell Skin Cell Empty Egg Cell
Step Four:Add a “ZAP” of electricity to “jump start” the egg into developing. In a few short days, the cells will have divided into several cells through mitosis. This stage of development is called an embryo.
Step Five: The embryo is implanted into a surrogate mother who will allow the clone to develop inside of their body.
Step Six: In a few short months, a baby is born! Who will the baby look like? Circle one… Donor of Egg Cell, Donor of Nucleus (skin cell), Surrogate Mother
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