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ROME. and the rise of. CHRISTIANITY. Geography Italian Peninsula Apennine Mountains run north to south Po River Plains of Latium and Campania. Climate Similar to southern California Dry, warm summers Mild, rainy winters Grew grains, citrus fruits, grapes, and olives. Rome

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and the rise of




    • Italian Peninsula
      • Apennine Mountains
        • run north to south
      • Po River
      • Plains of Latium and Campania


    • Similar to southern California
      • Dry, warm summers
      • Mild, rainy winters
      • Grew grains, citrus fruits, grapes, and olives


    • on the Tiber River
    • seven hills
    • spoke Latin
    • Indo-European, like Greek
    • influenced by the Greeks and the Etruscans

Rome Origin Legend

    • Trojan War
      • Troy hero, Aeneas fled after the war
        • Story is told in the epic poem Aeneid by Virgil
      • Formed an alliance with the Latins
      • Married a daughter of the Latin king

Romulus and Remus

    • Descendants of Aeneas
      • twins
    • Were thrown into the Tiber River, but were rescued and raised by wolves until a shepherd adopted them

Built a city where the wolf rescued them, but Romulus killed Remus

    • That city was name Rome
  • Romulus was the first king of Rome-753BC
    • There were seven kings before the Etruscans took over


    • Spread into N. Italy
    • turned Rome from a village to a city
    • wore togas and short cloaks
    • Rome copied army tactics from the Etruscans
    • Built sewers and temples, gave the “Roman” alphabet and numerals to Rome

Early Rome’s Success

    • Diplomacy fair, but firm
    • Military was strong and accomplished
    • Brilliant strategy
    • fortified cities and roads
    • Laws were practical

Rome Rising

    • Rome was at war for the next 200 years
    • took over Latium then all of southern Italy
    • A cruel king was overthrown by a rebellion and they created a new government

Roman Republic

    • Republic, people elect leaders to govern them
      • Elected every year
    • Not all got to vote
      • Only wealthy and powerful

Wars broke out

    • Rome chose dictators to lead the city during the wars
    • Cincinnatus was a famous dictator
      • a farmer who was chosen to defeat an enemy
      • defeated the enemy and went immediately back to his farm

Roman Government

    • Early Rome was divided into two groups
      • Patricians
        • wealthy landowners and ruling class
      • Plebeians
        • poor landowners, craftsmen, farmers

Roman Government

    • only patricians could hold office
    • Officers
      • Consuls (2) and magistrates
        • elected every year
        • ran government and led armies
        • Acted as judges


      • was in charge of civil law
  • Senate
    • 300 patricians
    • held the force and legislation of laws

Plebeian Councils

    • Assemblies
      • One elected magistrates and consuls
    • Tribunals
      • One made up of elected officials that could veto (“I forbid” in Latin) actions by other officials

Checks and Balances

    • Laws proposed by the Senate had to be approved by the magistrates
      • Then had to be ratified by the Plebeian Councils

Rome Divided

    • Patricians and Plebeians could not marry each other
    • Plebeians resented the Patrician class because they could hold office and were rich
      • wanted political and social equality
      • eventually Plebeians were able to become consuls

Rome as “One”

    • There was no democracy however
    • Some plebeians became part of the aristocracy
    • The aristocracy ruled the early republic

The Gift of Rome

    • codified law displayed in the Forum
    • first was the Twelve Tables
      • then the Law of Nations
    • established a standard of justice for everyone
    • innocent until proven guilty
    • looking at evidence before determination

Punic Wars

    • against Carthaginian Empire
    • The empire included the coast of N. Africa, S. Spain, Sardinia, Corsica, and W. Sicily
  • First Punic War
    • Rome attacked W. Sicily
    • Rome built a navy and won the war

Later, Rome persuaded a Carthaginian colony in Spain to revolt

  • Second Punic War
    • Hannibal, the greatest Carthaginian general, invaded Spain
    • headed toward Rome
    • 12 years later, Rome retook its lost land

Rome then decided to invade Carthage

    • Rome crushed Hannibal and gained Spain for its territory
  • Third Punic War
    • literally destroyed the city of Carthage
    • all men, women and children sold into slavery
    • Carthage territory became Africa

Other Wars

    • took Macedonia
    • then Greece
    • then Pergamum (in East Turkey/Asia Minor)


    • Rich and poor did not trust each other; violent rebellion was feared
    • Tribunes named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus worked to create farms for poor Romans
      • The rich and powerful didn’t like this and both were eventually killed


    • Got the poor to join the army when before they could not
      • This gave Marius a lot of power
    • Consul Lucius Sulla rebelled against Marius causing a civil war
      • Marius was defeated and Sulla made dictator


    • Thousands of slaves, led by Spartacus rose up, rebelled, and demanded freedom
    • He was killed in battle
      • The slaves were defeated and 6000 were executed