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ROME . The Republic The Empire. The Origins of Rome The Myth. Romulus and Remus. The Origins of Rome . Indo-Europeans settled in Italy in 1000 B.C. Latin's shepherds Greek colonies in Italy Etruscans settlements Founded on “the seven hills” of Rome. Geography. Italian peninsula

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Rome

ROME

The Republic

The Empire


The origins of rome the myth
The Origins of Rome The Myth

Romulus

and

Remus


The origins of rome
The Origins of Rome

  • Indo-Europeans settled in Italy in 1000 B.C.

  • Latin's shepherds

  • Greek colonies in Italy

  • Etruscans settlements

  • Founded on “the seven hills” of Rome


Geography
Geography

  • Italian peninsula

  • Midway between the Alps and Sicily

  • Tiber River

  • Fertile Land

  • Wooded Areas

  • Strategic area for military


Religions
Religions

  • Polythestic

  • Many early gods had no names but charged with taking care of daily things

  • Took signs from nature


Social organization

Family

Pater Familias

Father is leader of the family

Arrange Marriages

Determine Work Duty

Punish

Sell into slavery

Execution

Social Organization


Social organization1

Family

Women

Ran daily household duties

Could not own property or testify in court

No right to vote

Social Organization


Social organization2

Classes

Patricians - upper class

Wealthy landowners who held most of the power.

Plebeians- lower class

Common farmers, artisans and merchants

Made up the majority of the population

Social Organization


Government republic

Best features of

Monarchy

Aristocracy

Democracy

Created a unique form of government ruled by representatives

Government - Republic


Government

Monarchy-consuls

Aristocracy-Senate

Democracy-Election of Senators

Dictatorship-crisis times

Government.


Government republic1

Consuls

Two Consuls

Commanded Army

Directed Government

Limited power by Senate

One Year Term

Power of Veto (Overrule)

Government - Republic


Government republic2
Government - Republic

  • Senate

    • Aristocrats

    • 300 members chosen from Roman upper class

    • Created foreign and domestic policies


Government republic3
Government - Republic

  • Assembly

    • Elected tribunes

    • Made laws for commoners

  • Dictator

    • Single leader elected in times of crisis. Had absolute power.

    • Only in power for six months


The plebeians made progress toward equality
The plebeians made progress toward equality.

  • Tribunes of the “Plebs’

    • 10 elected officials to represent the plebeians in the Senate

    • Were granted veto power

  • Twelve tables-codified the laws

  • Citizens’ Assemblies

    • More democratic form of government

    • All adult, Roman males could attend and vote


Rights of plebs
Rights of Plebs

  • Due process in criminal proceedings


Punic wars
Punic Wars

  • Between Carthage and Rome

  • Three separate wars

  • 1st war -Rome built a navy

  • 2nd war-Hannibal crossed the Alps with elephants

  • 3rd war- Rome destroys Carthage


Rome was hurt by the punic wars
Rome was hurt by the Punic Wars

  • Many, many deaths

  • Farms destroyed which led to proletariat

  • Rich corrupted by power

  • Slavery widespread

  • Political arguments settled by bloodshed


First triumvirate
First Triumvirate

  • Julius Caesar

  • Pompey

  • Crassus


First triumvirate1
First Triumvirate

  • Dominated Rome for 10 years

  • When Crassus dies Pompey Caesar become rivals

  • Caesar was becoming famous winning victories in Gaul

  • Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome, they were afraid of his growing power

  • Caesar returns and takes control of Rome


First consul caesar
First Consul Caesar

  • 44 B.C. Caesar appointed dictator and tried to reform the government.

  • Granted citizenship to the provinces outside of Italy

  • Senate enlarged to 900 men

  • Landowners had to use free laborers for 1/3 of their work force

  • Public works program

  • Used colonies in Spain, France, etc. to provide land for landless poor

  • Designed a new,accurate calendar


Caesar s death
Caesar’s Death

  • Conspiracy by Roman Senators

  • Brutus and Cassius helped assassinate him

  • They killed Caesar for his ambition and disregard for the Roman Constitution

  • The senators thought they had saved the Roman Republic but it was already dead


Second triumvirate
Second Triumvirate

  • Octavian

  • Mark Anthony

  • Lepidus

  • Civil conflict follows death of Caesar

  • Nephew Octavian fights and defeats Mark Antony & Cleopatra

  • Takes title Augustus 27 B.C.


Now rome is an empire not a republic
Now Rome is an empire not a republic.

  • The Senate and the Assembly continued to meet

  • Augustus Caesar (First Emperor) continued to address the Senate

  • Senate played along

  • Octavian ruled as a dictator for 41 years


Succession never solved in rome
Succession never solved in Rome

  • It was never determined how the next emperor would be decided in Rome when the current emperor died.

  • After the death of the emperor, Rome generally went into a time of violence as different factions tried to make their leader emperor.


Toward the end of the republic a new religion was born
Toward the end of the republic a new religion was born.

  • Jesus taught through

    • Parables (stories with a lesson embedded in them)

    • Disciples ( his chosen 12 men who spread his word after his death)


Many of the christian teachings collided with the roman ideas
Many of the Christian teachings collided with the Roman ideas.

  • Religious ceremonies - Christians did not attend pagan ceremonies.

  • Fighting - Christians would not fight.

  • Worshipping the emperor - Christians only worshipped God and Jesus.


Consequently the romans persecuted the christians
Consequently the Romans ideas.persecuted the Christians.


Time of crisis crisis of the third century
Time of Crisis ideas. “Crisis of the Third Century”

  • Economic Problems - three sources of prosperity ended (trade, plunder, farms)

  • Military Problems - Goths over ran legions, soldiers fought for money not patriotism

  • Political Decay - officials were no longer loyal to Rome


Barbarians invasions
Barbarians Invasions ideas.

  • Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Burgundians, Lombards, Vandals

    Visogoths outside of Rome

    (Alaric)


Many historians have theories explaining why rome fell
Many historians have theories explaining why Rome fell... ideas.

  • Political

  • Social

  • Economic

  • Military


Immediate cause of the fall of rome was
Immediate cause of the fall of Rome was... ideas.

  • Pressure from Huns and invasions from the German tribes

  • The Hun threatened not only the Roman Empire, but all Germanic tribes as well

    • Attila sacked 70 cities in Rome

    • Attila met with Leo I (the pope) and stopped short of destroying Rome completely


Fall of rome
Fall of Rome ideas.

Conquest by barbarians

led to the sack of Rome.