Ancient Rome 500 BC – AD 500 Mr. O'Brien Culpeper County High School
The Romans Create a Republic Rome was founded in ________ BC by Romulus and Remus. The city was located near a ford on the _________ River. Because the ______________ Peninsula is located centrally in the Mediterranean region, the city of Rome was destined to be an economic powerhouse. From around 1000 to 500 BC three groups: Greeks, __________, and Etruscans fought for control of the region called ___________. Rome was built on a collection of ___ hills – the largest being the Palatine. The early Romans became skilled at growing grapes and _________: an essential commodity in cooking and other uses. The Romans adopted religious ideas from the Greeks to include _______________. The gods of Greece were known by different names that we associate today with the _________________. 753 Tiber Italian Latins Latium 7 olives mythology planets
The Senate • 300 Members • Controlled public funds, determined foreign policy, and acted as court. • Could call for a dictator in time of crisis. Dictator: could rule for a maximum of six months and would be both the military and judicial authority. Julius Caesar claimed himself Dictator for life.
Popular Assemblies • Assembly of citizens, normally made up of common people. (Plebeians) • Voted to make war and peace. • Elected 10 Tribunes Tribunes: elected reps from the assembly. They could refuse to approve Senate bills.
Magistrates • Public officials who governed in the name of Rome Praetors (2) Consuls Acted as judges during times of peace, military during times of war. Chief executives and military Commanders. Had veto powers over the Senate. Censors Elected every 5 years Appointed members of the Senate Oversaw the moral conduct of the people.
The Early Republic Etruscans The ___________ eventually ruled and helped unify the collection of villages into the city of Rome. They established a _____________ which would end with the reign of __________ the Proud. The aristocrats overthrew Tarquin in ________ BC establishing a ________________. There were (2) principal groups in early Rome that fought for power – the ___________ were the elite, wealthy landowners. The ______________ were the common people of Rome. The Patricians were represented in the Senate while the Plebeians had limited representation through their _______________. There was hostility between the groups until ______ BC when a group of laws were written down called the __________ ____________. This helped to bring order to early Rome and gave the Plebeians greater authority and legal protection. Instead of a king, the Republic had two ___________ that acted as an executive and would command the army as well. Monarchy Tarquin 509 Republic Patricians MONARCHY – an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority REPUBLIC – A state or nation in which the supreme power rests in all the citizens entitled to vote. This power is exercised by representatives elected, directly or indirectly, by them and responsible to them. Plebeians Tribunes 451 Twelve Tables Consuls
The Early Republic The Roman Senate had _______ members and they served for life. The assemblies included the ____________ Assembly where citizen-soldiers were represented and the __________ Assemblies created by the _______________. In time of crisis a ______________ can be appointed for 6 months. ___________ __________ claimed to be dictator for life. The Roman army was divided into units of 5,000 men called ___________. Each legion was subdivided into a _____________ of 80 men. They were also supported by ____________ or men who fought on horseback. 300 Centuriate Tribal Plebeians Dictator Julius Caesar Legions Century Cavalry
Rome Expands Rome began to spread it’s influence throughout the Italian peninsula. It suffered a set back when the _____ sacked Rome in 390 BC. By ______ BC, however; Rome will control all of Italy. Rome became heavily involved in trade and became an economic rival of the city of _______________ in North Africa. Eventually, this would lead to the _________ Wars that were fought between 264 and 146 BC. ___________ won all three resulting in their domination of the central Mediterranean region. The second Punic War: ______ BC is notable because the Carthaginian general ____________ attempted to invade Rome after crossing the _______ on elephants. He was eventually defeated by ________ at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. Gauls 265 Carthage Punic Rome 218 Hannibal Alps Scipio
The Punic WarsThe First Punic War 264 – 241 BC Causes Carthage was afraid Rome would take Sicily. Rome could close the Adriatic Sea and the Strait of Messina to Carthagian traders. Effects Carthage asked for peace, paid an indemnity and gave up control of Sicily.
The Roman Military Early Legions Roman Navy
The Punic WarsThe Second Punic War 218 - 202 BC Causes Hannibal invaded Italy from Carthago Nova in Spain, across the Alps on elephants, towards Rome. Effects Carthage asked for peace after the defeat at Zama. Carthage paid an indemnity again and lost the Spanish colonies.
Hannibal: Crossing the Alps
Hannibal, a great General of Carthage, fails to win his conquest of Rome. Scipio, the Roman General who wins the Battle of Zama
The Punic WarsThe Third Punic War 149 - 146 BC Causes Rome declared war. Most Romans hated Carthage and decided to act preemptively. Effects Carthage was destroyed. Most men were killed, women were enslaved and the city was burned. Salt was placed in the ground so crops couldn’t be grown ever again.
The Roman Empire Brings Change Rome begans to suffer growing pains around 100 BC. Wealthy landowners created large estates called __________. Small farms couldn’t compete so they closed up and were even forced into _________. Almost 1/3 of the population were slaves. Others went to the city and made up the urban poor. Two brothers, ______ and _______ Gracchus attempted reforms, but were killed leading to civil war. Strong Generals attempted reform at the tip of a sword (_______). Sulla marched on _______ and became dictator. Gaius _______ opened the army so everyone can join leading to upward mobility. Eventually, ________ ________, the hero from the war with ________; would bring about the last days of the _______________. Latifundias slavery Tiberius Gaius Gladius Rome Marius Julius Caesar Gaul Republic
The Republic fails to hold the citizens of Rome together. Roman EmpireImperivm RomanorvmBasileia Rwmaiwn The Appian Way
Political Changes in Rome Gracchus Brothers introduce reform measures to help the poor and limit the power of the Senate Violence became the primary tool of Roman politics Sulla marched his loyal legions on Rome, starting a civil war Angry citizens and sympathizers rioted and violently killed both Gracchi Leaders begin recruiting their own armies, loyal to themselves rather than the Roman government Sulla becomes dictator and sets a dangerous precedence. Military leaders can take over in a coup d etat
The First Triumvirate • Julius Caesar: • A general who built a huge following among the lower classes. • Gaius Pompey: • Another general who was head of the Roman army in the west. • Licinius Crassus: • The third general, assisted Caesar. The Pantheon
Julius Caesar • Superb military general: • Defeated the Gauls, wrote the Gallic Wars • Social background: • Nephew of Gaius Marius • Rose in the ranks of the military • Political accomplishments: • Appealed to the lower classes • Stood against the power of the senate • Downfall: • Claimed to be Dictator for life • Took credit for the accomplishments of the Senate
Caesar takes control In 60 BC, Caesar creates the first ___________ made up of himself, Crassus, and ___________. After Caesar’s success in the ________ Wars, Pompey and the Senate ordered him home without his army. In ___ BC, Caesar crossed the ______ River with his army. Pompey fled and was eventually hunted down and killed in ______ by the forces of Ptolemey III. In 46 BC, he returned to Rome and became ________ for life. He was then assassinated in ____ BC because of his disregard for the Senate. He made sweeping changes as an ________ ruler and helped the poor adding to his popularity. Triumvirate General Pompey Gallic 49 Rubicon Egypt Dictator 44 absolute
After the death of Caesar, _____ _____ broke out. Eventually, a new __________ emerged with Marc _______, Octavian, and _________. Lepidus would leave public office; Antony and Octavian would fight for complete power. An Empire Emerges Civil War Triumvirate Antony Lepidus
The Battle of Philippi Brutus and Cassius are defeated leaving the 2nd Triumvirate in power
An Empire Emerges Antony, along with __________ would be defeated at the Battle of ________ in 31 BC. Octavian would be the victor and would be granted the title ___________ or “exalted one”. Under Augustus, the _______ ________ would begin and last until AD 180. Augustus was the first in the line of Emperors called the _______________. Under the Pax Romana, the Romans created 15,000 miles of road, constructed the ___________ that held 50-80,000 people, and built the ___________ thanks to Roman concrete (dome) Cleopatra IV Actium Augustus Pax Romana Julio-Claudians Colosseum Pantheon
Ancient Rome Video Tour • The Forum Then…
Ancient Rome Video Tour • The Coloseum Then…
Ancient Rome Video Tour • The Rome Then…
Cleopatra and Caesar: Cleopatra IV was a Macedonian pharoah. She began an affair with Julius Caesar and had a child with him. They had a son whom Marc Antony and Cleopatra fought to have placed on the throne. They lost at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. This left Octavian (Augustus) as the first Emperor of Rome.
The First Emperor of Rome • Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the sea Battle of Actium in 31 BC. • Octavian changes his name to Augustus meaning “revered one” • Augustus did not take the name Emperor. • He expanded the Empire further then it had ever been until the Roman legions were defeated at Teutoburg forest in AD 9.
“Augustus” Octavian Caesar The Pantheon
The Julio-Claudians • They were descendants of Julius Caesar. • Included: • Tiberius: followed Augustus, capable ruler 14-37 • Caligula: insane and brutal, named his horse consul. Assassinated in AD 41. 37-41 • Claudius: wise ruler who conquered Britain. He was killed by his wife in AD 54. 41-54 • Nero: accused of starting the fire that burned Rome. He blamed it on the Christians. He was interested in acting and was considered insane. He killed himself in AD 68 before he could be assassinated. 54-68
Nero Tiberius Claudius Caligula
Caligula – just sick… • Killed on a whim… • Slept with other men’s wives and bragged about it • Involved in incest with his sisters and sold them out as prostitutes • Made his palace a brothel • Had a very difficult childhood