chronic obstructive pulmonary disease n.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Permanent reduction in airflow in the lung Caused by smoking, air pollution, dust, lack of alpha1-antitripsien

  3. COPDPatho physiology Loss in elasticity due to changes in collagen and elastin on alveolar level Narrowing of airways

  4. COPD

  5. COPDChronic bronchitis Productive cough for more than 3 months of 2 consecutive years (other conditions excluded)

  6. Chronic bronchitisPathology ↑ mucous production Hypertrophy of mucous glands Thickening of the airway ↑ number of goblet cells Thus narrowing of the lumen of the airways and airway obstruction. Infection caused by accumulated secretions.

  7. Chronic bronchitis

  8. COPDEmphysema Permanent enlargement in the normal size of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles due to destruction of alveolar tissue.

  9. Anatomy

  10. Anatomy

  11. EmphysemaPathology Lack of alpha1-antitripsien causes uncontrolled breakdown of collagen and elastin, damaging the alveolar framework

  12. What’s in a cigarette?

  13. EmphysemaClassification “Blue-bloater” Moderately severe airflow impairment Stimulus for breathing ↓ PO2

  14. EmphysemaClassification “Pink puffer” Little sputum production, dyspnoea gr.IV Right heart failure and peripheral oedema

  15. Emphysema and Chronic bronchitisClinical signs Use of accessory muscles Drawing in of supraclavicular fossae and intercostal space ↓ chest expansion ↓ lung sounds (breath sounds) Dyspnoea with or without productive cough

  16. Emphysema and Chronic bronchitisX-rays Hyperinflation Flattened diaphragms Lengthening of heart shadow Prominent hilar vessels

  17. Emphysema X-ray

  18. EmphysemaLung functions ↓ FEV1 ↓ forced vital capacity ↓ peak flow ↑ total lung capacity and residual volume

  19. EmphysemaCourse of disease Airflow impairment develops over long time Productive smoker’s cough Acute bronchitis Cannot go to work – severe bronchitis Attacks occur repeatedly – lose jobs

  20. EmphysemaComplications Cor pulmonale – pulmonary hypertension causes right ventricular failure Bullae – alveolar walls burst and form large air-filled spaces with thin walls

  21. Cor Pulmonale

  22. Bullae

  23. COPD rehabilitationDyspnoea Overactivity of accessory muscles inhitis diaphragm Patient must be taught to breathe with lower part of his chest

  24. COPD rehabilitationDyspnoea Relaxation positions and breathing control “Pursed lip breathing”

  25. “Pursed lip breathing” • Maintains airway pressure in lungs, prevents airways from collapsing • ↑ airflow

  26. Ontspanningsposisies

  27. Ontspanningsposisies

  28. COPD rehabilitation Bronchodilators Relieves bronchospasm Anti-cholinergic drugs (atrovent) and not B2-stimulants If stimulus for breathing is ↓PO2 – do not nebulise with 100% O2

  29. COPD rehabilitation Improve exercise tolerance Improve physical activity to highest functional level Improve quality of life 6 minute walking test Exercise programme

  30. COPD rehabilitation Remove secretions Nebulise with mucoliticum Percuss, shake and vibrate Precaution – patients on korticosteroids develop osteoperosis. Shaking and vibrating can cause rib fracture. “Huffing”

  31. “Huffing” • Forced expiratory technique • Just as effective as coughing, less effort • Medium-sized breath, mouth and glottis open, force air out using chest wall and abdominal muscles.

  32. References • Pryor, J.A. and Prasad, S.A. 2009. Physiotherapy for respiratory and cardiac problems. Adult and paediatrics. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone • FTB 309 Dictate • Images courtesy of Google search engine