chronic obstructive pulmonary disease n.
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  2. What is COPD? • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung disease • Makes it difficult to breathe • There are two main forms of COPD • Chronic bronchitis, defined by a long-term cough with mucus • Emphysema, defined by destruction of the lungs over time

  3. What is COPD? Cont… • In COPD less air flows in and out of the airways because: • The airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality. • The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed. • The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed. • The airways make more mucus than usual, which tends to clog them.

  4. Causes, incidence, and risk factors • Smoking is the leading cause of COPD • Cigarette smoke • Pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoke also can cause COPD if the smoke is inhaled • Nonsmokers who lack a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema • Other risk factors for COPD • Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace • Exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution • Frequent use of cooking gas without proper ventilation

  5. Statistics • COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. and is projected to be the third leading cause of death for both males and females by the year 2020 • It is estimated that there may currently be 16 million people in the United States currently diagnosed with COPD • It is estimated that there may be as many as an additional 14 million or more in the United States still undiagnosed

  6. Statistics cont… • Men are 7 times more likely to be diagnosed with emphysema then women • According to the Center for Disease Control there were 124,816 deaths in the US in 2002 • It is the only major disease with an increasing death rate, rising 16%

  7. Symptoms • Symptoms of COPD develop slowly, some people may be unaware that they are sick • Cough with mucus • Shortness of breath that gets worse with mild activity • Fatigue • Frequent respiratory infections • Wheezing

  8. Signs and tests • Spirometry • blowing out as hard as one can into a small machine that tests lung capacity

  9. Signs and tests cont… • Pictures of the lungs • X-rays and CT scans • Blood test “Blood Gas” • measure the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

  10. Treatment • There is no cure for COPD • Persons with COPD must stop smoking • best way to slow down the lung damage • Medications • Inhalers (bronchodilators) to open the airways • Inhaled steroids to reduce lung inflammation • Pulmonary Rehabilitation • Oxygen Therapy

  11. Treatment cont… • Avoid very cold air • Make sure no one smokes in your home • Reduce air pollution by eliminating fireplace smoke and other irritants • Eat a healthy diet with fish, poultry, or lean meat, as well as fruits and vegetables • Surgical treatments may include • Surgery to remove parts of the diseased lung, for some patients with emphysema • Lung transplant for severe cases

  12. Prognosis • Chronic illness • Will only get worse more quickly if one continues to smoke • Patients with severe COPD will be short of breath with most activities and will be admitted to the hospital more often • Patients should talk with their doctor about the use of breathing machines and end-of-life care

  13. Life Expectancy • life expectancy is based on the severity of the disease • measured by a Spirometry test • Differ from one patient to another • Life expectancy decreases, as the stages of severity increases • Effective treatment during the early stages can increase the COPD life expectancy

  14. Complications from COPD • Irregular heart beats (arrhythmias) • Need for breathing machine and oxygen therapy • Right-sided heart failure or heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease • Pneumonia • Pneumothorax • Severe weight loss and malnutrition

  15. Stress and COPD • Stress and anxiety can make you feel short of breath and cause your COPD symptoms to become worse • Develop effective ways to manage stress • Learn to change thought patterns that produce stress • Reduce stressors • Practice relaxation exercise • Get enough sleep

  16. Prevention • Not smoking prevents most COPD • Quit-smoking programs • Medicines are also available to help kick the smoking habit • most effective if a person is motivated to quit

  17. Bibliography • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001153/ • http://www.copd-international.com/library/statistics.htm • http://www.cdc.gov/copd/data.htm • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/copd-life-expectancy.html • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/copd/DS00916 • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/copdchronicobstructivepulmonarydisease.html • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/copd/what-is-copd/how-does-copd-affect-breathing.htm