ELECTRONICS AND POWER ELECTRONICS Nisha Kondrath Assistant Professor Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Minnesota Duluth
Background • Education • Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering • Wright State University, Dayton, OH, 2010 • Master of Science in Engineering • Wright State University, Dayton, OH, 2005 • Bachelor of Technology in Electrical & Electronics Engineering • Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India, 2002 • Teaching and Research Experience • Electronics • Power electronics • VLSI systems • Control systems • RF systems • Power magnetics
Quotes from IEEE journals • We now live in a truly global society. In the highly automated industrial front with economic competitiveness of nations, in future, two technologies will dominate: Computers and Power Electronics. • The former providing intelligence as to “what to do” • The latter providing “the means to do it” • Computers: Household item • Power Electronics: Household item?
Quotes from IEEE journals • “Modern computers, communication, and electronic systems get their life blood from power electronics” • Power electronics technology encompasses the effective use of electronic components, the application of circuit theory and design techniques, and the development of analytical tools toward efficient electronic conversion, control, and conditioning of electric power. • Power electronics is an enabling technology
Why Power Electronics? • Electrical energy efficiency • 65 % power loss in the production end – in turbines • Only 16 % is left at the consumption end • For every 100 kW input fuel energy, we get 15-20 kW of output energy. • For every 1 kW of power saved at the consumer end save about 6 kW of power at the production end. • Maximum power consumption is in: • Induction machines: fan, pump, compressor • Lighting
Why Power Electronics? • Sources of energy: • 87 % from fossil fuel • 6 % from nuclear • Remaining 7 % from renewable sources: solar, wind etc. • At the present rate, by the end of 22nd century, non-renewable energy sources will be depleted. • Solution: • Efficient use of available electrical energy • Improve the conversion efficiency • Improve the percentage of renewable energy
Why Power Electronics? • High Efficiency • Usually consists of switching devices: Results in less power loss in individual components. • Smaller size • Switching components enable high operating frequency • Smaller magnetic components • Cheaper
Definition of Power Electronics • Power electronics is the technology associated with efficient conversion, control, and storage of electric power by power semiconductor devices. • Power semiconductor devices are the heart of power electronics • Common terminologies • Power electronics • Power conversion • Power management • Power processing
Power Electronics Source Load Control Power Electronics • Used wherever there is a need to modify one form of electrical energy into another. • Voltage, current, or frequency • Power levels range from some milliwatts (mW) to hundreds of megawatts (MW) • Mobile phones to HVDC transmission systems • Unlike regular electronic systems, which carry signals, power electronic systems carry power. • Focus on efficiency
Power Converters • Rectifiers: ac-dc converters • Power supplies connected to the mains. • Choppers: dc-dc converters • Mobile devices such as mobile phones, PDA etc. • Electronic isolation • Power factor correction • Inverters: dc-ac converters • UPS (Uninterrupted power supply) • Emergency lighting system • Cycloconverters: ac-ac converters • International power adapters
Applications • Power transmission and distribution • Computers • Consumer electronics • Automotive electronics • Military electronics • Medical equipments • Space applications • Communication systems • Industrial electronics
How to become a successful Power Electronics Engineer? • Bachelor’s degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering (with major emphasis on basic electronics) • Successfully complete basic electronic courses to lay the foundation along with practical training from the industry (Get internships!!!). • Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering (with major emphasis on power electronics) • Use the basis from the bachelor’s degree to learn advanced courses. • Get introduced to the research aspects of the field. • Ph.D in power electronics
Career Options • Interdisciplinary areas: • PE + Control systems • PE + Device Physics • PE + Electromagnetics • PE + Communications • PE + VLSI + MEMS • PE + Robotics • PE + Automotive • PE + Renewable/Altenative energy . .
Career Options • In the United States, about 25 of Fortune 100 companies engage in PE • Global industries • GE, IBM, Texas Instruments… • Small-scale industries • Tennant Companies, McKinley Group.. • Local companies • 3M, Nycor, IR (Ingersoll Rand), … • National Research Institutes • WPAFB, NASA Glenn Research, Oak Ridge National Labs, Sandia National Labs…. • Academics • Professional Engineer, Professor, Research Associate…. • Self Employment • Sales, Distribution, Application Engineer for Power Electronic Devices and Equipments…