THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
A Typical Slave Ship, at port in London’s East India docks – getting ready for the next slave run. A typical cargo included: IRON BARS COWRIE SHELLS
CHEAP MANUFACTURED GOODS THE TRIANGULAR SLAVE TRADE Trinkets – pots, pans, beads, shells, cloth SLAVES WERE USED ON PLANTATIONS, GROWING SUGAR, TOBACCO, COTTON. THIRD STAGE – RAW MATERIALS SENT TO EUROPE Profits from slave sales were used to buy produce from the plantations eg. sugar, tobacco, cotton, which were sold for great profit in Europe. Cheap trinkets exchanged for slaves FIRST STAGE – EUROPE TO AFRICA U.S.A. TRIBAL CHIEFS EXCHANGE SLAVES , OR SLAVES ARE CAPTURED Mexico Caribbean Islands SECOND STAGE - THE MIDDLE PASSAGE SLAVE TRADERS THEN SOLD THE SLAVES TO PLANTATION OWNERS Brazil THE ‘MIDDLE PASSAGE’ – THE JOURNEY ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.. THE WORLD AROUND 1750
Slaves being rowed to a newly arrived slaving ship off the Guinea coast – note the trading fort in the background. Cross-section of a slave embarkation canoe.
Boarding the ship and being chained and then being sent down to the slave decks. Boarding the ship and being chained and then being sent down to the slave decks.
Tight Pack - Loose Pack This model [right] and the charts were used by slave reformers at the end of the 18th century, to show how a Liverpool slave ship of 320 tons could carry 400 slaves. On one voyage the ship carried 609 slaves.
HUMAN CARGOES A successful slave voyage could expect a loss rate of 1 in 20 slaves. A bad run might suffer losses as high as 1 in 3, mainly due to disease. The space between the deck shelves could vary from 72 cm.to 1 m.
Slaves were fed twice a day. Male slaves were chained, women and children usually went unshackled.
Slaves were brought up on to the top deck to be‘exercised’ or ‘danced’ usually once a day. This was usually at the point of a whip. This was the most dangerous time for the ship’s crew when the slaves had an opportunity to rebel. A loaded cannon was always kept ready with a lighted match.
REBELLION! REBELLION! Rebellion was the greatest danger feared by the slave merchants. Slaves being exercised on deck were always guarded by a cannon with a lighted match ready.
Punishments Punishments Diseased and rebellious slaves were often thrown overboard. Thrown Overboard Beatings
The Physical Check-up Slaves were regarded as beasts of burden, and were treated as such. Before the sales took place slave masters would check the new batch of slaves for their physical condition. They would use the same methods as if checking oxen, horses or cows - muscle structure, teeth, eyes, skin condition, looking for any flaws [wondering whether they could gain a good price in the
Auctioneer ... and Auction (bidding) Sales ... and Auction Gavel Slaves Plantation Owners
Effects of the Slave Trade European port towns, such as, Bristol and Liverpool, largely grew up on the slave trade New social habits like the drinking of tea and coffee, smoking tobacco and eating chocolate, were introduced into Europe. Slave owners became immensely rich. One result of this personal wealth was the building of many impressive mansion houses
Empire Building .... Rivalries began between European countries for control of the rich slave areas in the Americas’, Africa and Asia, this led to many colonial wars and the growth of empires