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EGMONT – Royal Institute for International Relations, Belgium

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  1. EGMONT – Royal Institute for International Relations, Belgium

  2. Conflict Diamonds, the Kimberley Process as an international, multistakeholder response • Weak internal controls in artisanal diamond producing countries (e.g. Ghana) threatens integrity and effectivity of the KPCS • Moscow Declaration 2005, creation of WGAAP • Belgian FPS FA commissioned EGMONT to study these dynamics EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  3. Two objectives: • Strengthen KPCS integrity by improving control over informal extraction and trade • Improve social and economic situation of artisanal diamond diggers, miners; encourage positive role of ASM in driving rural development • Cooperation with WGAAP, CASM • Strenght in combination:two desired outcomes, one set of measures EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  4. Research project • Existing literature • Newly commissioned field research • Three phases • General research • Critical review of past diamond development programs • Validation, conclusions EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  5. Current status • Research completed • Validation workshop held in Pretoria, 15-16 Sept 08 • Drafting publication • Official publication at KP Plenary, New Delhi, 3 Nov 08 EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  6. Research includes: • Geological analysis of transborder mining, case study Berbérati-Yokadouma-Enyele (CAR, RCongo, Cameroun) • Anthropological study on how this affects communities: case of the bana Lunda, Congolese artisans in Angola during the civil war EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  7. State capacity in Africa :key governance issues, challenges, approaches: • Monitoring mining and trading • Formalising the sector • Establishing internal controls (KP) • Study on cooperatives in Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana • Key factors driving coop development, organization and structure, services • Lessons for African cooperative development? EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  8. Significant wage differences between African/Latin-American diggers • Why? Examination of value-chain, price mark-ups as diamonds travel their paths • Specific case study on ADM in Mbuji-Mayi, attention for grass-roots initiatives • Ghanaian diamond industry: PMMC, cooperation with galamsey, internal controls issues • Interventions in the artisanal diamond secor • PDA/IDMP, Sierra Leone • D4D, Liberia EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  9. KP Moscow Declaration, 2005 Recommendations • Ensuring traceability of production from mine to export • Regulating artisanal mining • Regulating the trade in artisanal mining • Tackling illicit cross-border trade • Encouraging artisans to move into the formal economy EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  10. Contribution of Egmont to the KPCS and artisanal diamond mining • Support to the WGAAP in implementing Moscow Recommendations • Case studies of different strategies • Evaluation of past interventions • Lessons learned, reflecting in improved and more balanced recommendations • Positive effect of KP requirements on ASM communities • Formalization can lead to retaining more money inside the country, stimulating development • Improves social/eco capital of mining communities, reducing vulnerability to exploitation EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael

  11. Contact: Steven Van Bockstael s.vanbockstael@egmontinstitute.be EGMONT - Steven Van Bockstael