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Chapter 4. Follow health safety and security procedures. On successful completion of this chapter you will be able to:. Follow workplace procedures for health, safety and security Follow emergency procedures Participate in the organisation’s OHS practices. State and Territory Authorities.

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Follow health safety and security procedures

on successful completion of this chapter you will be able to
On successful completion of this chapter you will be able to:
  • Follow workplace procedures for health, safety and security
  • Follow emergency procedures
  • Participate in the organisation’s OHS practices
state and territory authorities
State and Territory Authorities
  • Responsible for making, administering and enforcing OHS laws. Specifically:
    • Protecting the health and safety of employees and the public (while in a workplace)
    • Facilitating compliance with OHS legislation
  • Work in conjunction with the ASCC
ohs legislation objectives
OHS legislation objectives
  • Reduction of work-related accidents.
  • Elimination of risks to health and safety at work.
  • Protection of people at work against risks to health and safety.
  • Provision of involvement of employees in the identification and management of health and safety issues.
  • Designed to support OHS legislation
  • Are more detailed requirements for dealing with specific workplace hazards
  • Are legally enforceable
  • Developed to assist with legal compliance and facilitate national OHS consistency
  • Not legally binding unless adopted into regulations
  • There are both national standards and industry-specific standards
codes of practice
Codes of practice
  • A practical and flexible guide for meeting OHS standards in the workplace. Examples include:
    • Manual handling
    • Hazardous substances
    • First aid
ohs inspectors
OHS inspectors
  • WorkCover inspectors are appointed under each state and territory’s OHS legislation and have the authority to visit most workplaces.
  • May visit in response to a complaint or as part of a strategy that focuses on a specific hazard or on an industry.
  • The have right of entry at any time as required or requested
  • It is an offence to refuse access or obstruct and inspector
what can ohs inspectors do
What can OHS inspectors do?
  • Visit and inspect most work sites
  • Enter a work site at any time as required or requested
  • Investigate an incident of serious injury or fatality
  • Take photographs and samples
  • Seize property
  • Initiate a court order
  • Examine and copy documents
  • Conduct interviews and enquiries
  • Seek assistance from technical experts, interpreters or others
  • Issue improvement notices
  • Issue prohibition notices
  • Prosecute
what is an improvement notice
What is an ‘Improvement Notice’?
  • A written directive requiring a person or organisation to fix a breach of the law.
what is a prohibition notice
What is a ‘Prohibition Notice’?
  • A direction to an individual or organisation to stop an activity that is, or has the potential to be, a risk.
penalty notices
Penalty notices
  • On the spot fine for a breach of the Act
  • Issued by inspectors
australian safety and compensation council ascc
Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC)
  • Previously NOHSC
  • Leads and coordinates efforts to prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace - set national OHS agenda
  • Does not make or enforce laws, but…
    • Develops national standards
    • Compile OHS statistics
    • Facilitate OHS training initiatives
    • Improve compensation arrangements
    • Improve rehabilitation and return to work policies
    • Provide practical OHS guidance
  • Commonwealth OHS statutory authority responsible for workplace safety, rehabilitation and compensation in the Commonwealth jurisdiction
  • Administers the Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) Act and the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act
responsibility for ohs in the workplace
Responsibility for OHS in the workplace
  • Responsibility for OHS in the workplace
employer obligations for ohs
Employer obligations for OHS
  • Employers have a duty of care to employees and the general public while on the work site. To facilitate this, employers must:
    • Maintain equipment
    • Train staff in the use of equipment
    • Ensure safe storage, handling and use of hazardous substances
    • Ensure safe work practices
    • Provide adequate information, instruction and training to enable employees to do their job safely
    • Monitor the health of employees
    • Involve employees on OHS initiatives
    • Monitor, record and evaluate workplace incidents.
employee obligations for ohs
Employee obligations for OHS
  • Employees have a duty of care to colleagues and the general public while on the work site. To facilitate this, employees must:
    • Perform their duties competently
    • Take reasonable care for their own, their colleagues and the public’s health and safety
    • Cooperate with employers to comply with OHS requirements
    • Report breaches of safety and potential risks
    • Work and behave in ways that are safe
    • Follow instructions and rules imposed by the employer.
duty of care
Duty of care
  • The responsibility one person has for another, in the eyes of the law, for that person’s health and safety.
first aid in the workplace
First Aid in the workplace
  • First Aid is the application of emergency care, in the first instance, to an injured person.
  • Employers are required to provide adequate facilities for employee welfare – including first aid facilities
  • Find who, in the workplace, has first aid training – just in case!
ohs policies and procedures
OHS policies and procedures
  • Policies and procedures are developed to help employers and employees meet their obligations under OHS requirements.
how do enterprises meet their ohs obligations
How do enterprises meet their OHS obligations?
  • Policy and procedure development and implementation
  • Safe work practices
  • OHS representatives and committees
  • Reporting mechanisms
what is a policy
What is a policy?
  • The position, an organisation takes on an issue
  • It can also be a standard, rule or regulation.
  • An organisations policy usually forms part of its overall goals to achieve OHS in the workplace.
what is a procedure
What is a procedure?
  • A procedure describes how to carry out a task or duty
  • Usually a step by step guide that helps ensure compliance and consistency in the way a task is completed or an event responded to
  • Failure to follow a (legal) procure is a breach of employee responsibility under OHS legislation
types of policies and procedures
Types of policies and procedures
  • Policies and procedures are developed to manage any (potential) eventuation, including:
    • Emergency situations
    • Manual handling
    • Safe work practices
    • Security issues
    • Reporting and recording OHS matters
    • Risk and hazard identification and control
    • Use of PPC&E.
with what is security concerned
With what is ‘security’ concerned?
  • Security is concerned with protecting:
    • People
    • Assets
what is a security hazard
What is a security hazard?
  • Any situation that has the potential to threaten the safety or wellbeing of people and/or assets
a security system may include
A security system may include:
  • Written procedures (for all security issues)
  • Staff training in prevention and procedure in the event of security breaches
  • Regular review of existing systems
  • Clearly defined lines of authority in the event of security breaches
  • Security staffing
  • Security checks
  • Reporting systems for security breaches
  • Evaluation of management of security breaches after the event.
security procedures
Security procedures
  • Security procedures for hospitality enterprises are likely to include the management of:
    • Emergency evacuation
    • Theft (by staff and customers)
    • Bomb threats
    • Armed robbery
    • Premises and property security
    • Access control
    • Guest room security
    • Safety deposit boxes
    • Luggage storage and scanning
    • Keys and locks control
    • Disturbances
    • Financial control
    • Record keeping
who is a suspicious person
Who is a ‘suspicious person’?
  • Anyone who gives the impression that something might be wrong by their looks or behaviour.
  • Be alert to people who
    • Rush off hurriedly when you look at them or approach them
    • Avoid eye contact
    • Attempt to access ‘staff only’ areas
what is a disturbance
What is a ‘disturbance’?
  • Any event or occurrence that interrupts the normal activities of an organisation.
  • Be alert to:
    • Loud arguments/unruly behaviour
    • Scuffles/violence
    • Intoxicated people
    • Vandalism
    • emergencies
communicating ohs and security policies and procedures
Communicating OHS and security policies and procedures
  • Ask employer for copy of policies and procedures (and read them!)
  • Participate in drills
  • Participate in OHS training
  • Participate in workplace OHS committees
implementing procedures
Implementing procedures
  • While it’s unlikely we’re involved in the development of procedures (although you may like to recommend to an employee that OHS procedures be developed), active participation in their implementation is an opportunity to be informed and be safe in the workplace.
  • Implementation requires that:
    • The procedure be tested
    • Employees be informed about it
    • The procedure be reviewed (to measure appropriateness/effectiveness)
what is a safe work practice
What is a Safe Work Practice?
  • The completion of tasks in a manner that is safe - to prevent injuries and accidents. Eg.
    • Using PPC&E
    • Appropriate manual handling
    • Appropriate knife and equipment use
    • Correct handling of chemicals, poisons and dangerous materials
    • Hazard identification and removal
    • Observing safety signage
what is ppc e
What is PPC&E?
  • Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment (PPC&E)
  • Items used to protect employees while performing their job.
  • Examples in hospitality include:
    • Uniforms
    • Disposable and chemical resistant gloves
    • Face masks
    • Hairnets
    • Aprons
    • Glasses/goggles
    • Tongs
    • Trolleys
what is manual handling
What is ‘manual handling’?
  • The physical manoeuvring of items – lifting, pulling, carrying, pushing, holding
  • Appropriate manual handling will prevent injury
  • Almost every job in hospitality requires some manual handling.
using knives and equipment
Using knives and equipment
  • The kitchen is one of the most dangerous places in which to work (in hospitality). Kitchen staff are exposed to:
    • Sharp surfaces
    • Hot surfaces
    • Heavy lifting
    • Repetitive tasks
    • Hot environment
    • Small work spaces
chemicals poisons and dangerous materials
Chemicals, poisons and dangerous materials
  • The hazards and risks associated with chemicals and poisons are many; primarily due to:
    • Poor handling
    • Inadequate training
    • Spillage
    • Leakage
    • Poor storage
what is a hazard
What is a hazard?
  • A hazard is anything that can potentially cause harm.
  • Hazards are identified through:
    • Workplace inspection
    • Monitoring of reported incidents
    • Job safety checks
    • Employee consultation
    • Safety audits
what is a risk
What is a risk?
  • A risk is the likelihood that a potential hazard will result in injury or disease.
  • Risks are measured in terms of the extent of injury that may result.
what is risk control
What is risk control?
  • The elimination or minimisation of the likelihood of an injury occurring if exposed to a hazard.
  • Risk control measures include:
    • Total elimination of the risk
    • Job redesign or product substitute
    • Additional training
    • Use of PPC&E
how can risks and the likelihood of injury be minimised
How can risks and the likelihood of injury be minimised?
  • Wearing personal protective clothing
  • Following OHS procedures
  • Reporting faults
  • Correctly manually handling
  • Cleaning spillages immediately
  • Correctly storing equipment and chemicals
  • Correctly using equipment
what is hazard management
What is hazard management?
  • The identification of potential hazards in the workplace and the implementation of steps to eliminate those hazards.
types of hazards in the workplace
Types of hazards in the workplace
  • Physical – those hazards that impact on the body.
  • Psychological – those hazards that impact on our mental well-being.
physical hazards
Physical hazards
  • Noise
  • Vibration
  • Heat stress
  • Cold stress
  • UV rays
  • Fatigue
physical hazards1
Physical hazards
  • Can also include:
    • Chemical handling
    • Manual handling
    • The use of knives and equipment
    • Handling hot surfaces
psychological hazards
Psychological hazards
  • Psychological hazards can result in stress and anxiety
    • Reduced staffing levels
    • Task repetition
    • Dealing with complaints
    • Long shifts/shift work
    • Increased productivity
    • Bullying
    • Harassment
what is bullying
What is bullying?
  • A form of harassment. It can be verbal, physical or psychological.
  • Examples of bullying include:
    • Teasing
    • Gossiping
    • Telling lies
    • Starting rumours
    • Taunting
    • Physical abuse
  • Often, people don’t recognise themselves as a bully – they excuse their behaviours with comments like:
    • ‘We were just joking/having a bit of fun’
    • ‘We’re just playing. It’s just a game’
    • ‘Can’t they take a joke? They should lighten up’
safety signage
Safety signage
  • Safety signage alerts employees and visitors to the site to an immediate danger (or potential hazard) in the workplace.
  • Safety signage is intended to prevent injury. It can only do this if we take notice of the sign!
reporting requirements
Reporting requirements
  • All security breaches, accidents, ‘near misses’ and injuries in the workplace, no matter how big or small, should be reported to management.
  • In many instances, there is also a legislative requirement to report accidents and injuries.
  • Reporting assists with the analysis of hazards and risks which in turn contributes to the development of strategies to prevent further occurrence.
reporting injuries
Reporting injuries
  • All employers are required to maintain a log of injuries and near misses that occur in the workplace.
  • In the event of serious injury or fatality, the employer is obligated to report the event to their OHS Authority (who conducts an intensive investigation of the incident and the workplace).
what is a near miss
What is a ‘near miss’?
  • A ‘near miss’ is an accident waiting to happen!
  • A ‘near miss’ is an incident whereby an injury almost or could have occurred.
  • An employer is required to investigate near misses and to reduce further likelihood of a near miss occurring (by taking steps to fix the cause of the near miss).
what is risk management
What is risk management?
  • Risk management is the identification of incidents that occur as a result of the same risk and putting in place measures to prevent further occurrence.
cost of accidents
Cost of accidents
  • Human
  • Social
  • Financial
  • Psychological
what is an emergency
What is an emergency?
  • An act or event that has the potential to harm, or has harmed people or property.
  • Examples include:
    • Fire
    • Bomb threat
    • Natural disaster
    • Accidents
    • Civil disorder
how we learn of an emergency while at work
How we learn of an emergency while at work
  • We discover it or are a part of it
  • By telephone
  • Face-to-face
  • An electronic alarm
what is an evacuation
What is an evacuation?
  • An evacuation is the safe and fast removal of all people from the premises.
  • Evacuations may be full (everyone/the entire premises) or partial (only certain areas).
  • Sometimes it is safer to remain on the premises.
when should we evacuate
When should we evacuate?
  • The temptation to evacuate is often strong – after all, we don’t want to die!
  • However, not all emergencies require evacuation. It is essential to follow workplace OHS procedures in an emergency to ensure everyone's wellbeing.
when to evacuate
When to evacuate
  • On the sounding of the safety alarm.
  • When directed to by an emergency services member .
reasons we may need to evacuate
Reasons we may need to evacuate
  • Fire
  • Gas leak
  • Ventilation contamination
  • Bomb threat
when not to evacuate
When not to evacuate
  • Civil disorder (safer to remain in doors – unless directed to do so by emergency services personnel).
  • Robbery or armed hold up (safer to do as told by assailants).
  • Deranged/irrational customer (safer to remain out of sight if possible – unless directed to do so by emergency services personnel).
  • Natural disasters (in many instances, it may be safer to remain indoors).
fire causes
Fire – causes
  • In hospitality environments, fires are most likely to originate in non-public areas (kitchen, storeroom etc). Causes include:
    • Faulty electrical equipment
    • Hot oils and fats
    • Poorly stored and handled chemicals
    • Human actions
    • Carelessness by smokers
fire characteristics
Fire – characteristics
  • All fires have three characteristics – they need fuel, heat and oxygen.
  • Removing one of these characteristics will stop the fire.
fire classes
Fire – classes
  • Fires are classified by the type of fuel the fire needs to burn (which in turn determines how it can be extinguished)
    • Wood, paper, textiles, general rubbish (water)
    • Flammable liquids (foam)
    • Live electrical equipment (carbon dioxide or powder)
    • Cooking oils & fats (foam/wet chemical).
fire prevention
Fire prevention
  • Everyone in the organisation is responsible for fire prevention.
    • Be familiar with evacuation procedures
    • Be familiar with fire fighting equipment and its location
    • Report electrical faults
    • Correctly store flammable liquids
    • Don’t store combustibles unnecessarily or carelessly
    • Ensure rubbish does not accumulate
    • Extinguish cigarettes thoughtfully
    • Handle fats, oils and chemicals correctly
    • Never leave the kitchen unattended
    • Clean regularly
fire wardens
Fire wardens
  • Usually staff members appointed by the OHS committee in the workplace.
  • These staff members have the authority to take charge of emergency situations in the workplace.
  • You must listen to and do what a fire warden tells you to do in the event of an emergency
  • Explosions may be the result of a bomb going off or gas leak.
  • In most instances, an explosion will cause a fire.
  • In most instances, people will be injured.
  • In most instances, structural damage will have occurred.
  • In all instances, evacuate.
ventilation contamination
Ventilation contamination
  • Ventilation contamination results from many things – air borne/harmful bacteria, leaking toxic chemicals, gas leak
  • In most instances, evacuation is necessary.
bomb threats
Bomb threats
  • Increasingly common and not to be taken lightly – no matter how ridiculous the threat sounds!
  • If you receive a threat (on the telephone):
    • Don’t hang up (even if the caller does)
    • Try not to panic/try to remain call
    • Don’t laugh
    • Find out as much as you can (about the bomb – where, type, when explode, why)
    • Follow callers instructions
armed hold up
Armed hold up
  • Money and property is not important; your life is.
  • Always cooperate. Do not resist
  • Raise silent alarm if one exists and able to safely do so
  • Do not make eye contact
  • Do not answer back/do not try to be a smart…
  • Do not ask questions
  • Do not put yourself or others in danger.
structural faults
Structural faults
  • Result of poor construction, inappropriate material use, natural events, explosions.
  • Full or partial evacuation may be required.
  • Do not return to premises until advised it is safe to do so.
natural disasters
Natural disasters
  • Sadly, more common than we’d like. Fortunately, early warning systems alert us to many potential disasters in time to evacuate
  • Do not ignore an early warning alarm
  • Put in place appropriate procedures for evacuation and securing of the property
  • Make sure you know what to do in the event of a natural disaster if working in a high risk location
what is civil disorder
What is civil disorder?
  • Any event whereby civilians create a disturbance, usually of the peace.
  • Usually involves large numbers of people
  • Has the potential to be a security and safety hazard
  • Evacuation unlikely when the disturbance is outside of the premises. Safer to remain on the premises.
accidents and medical emergencies
Accidents and medical emergencies
  • An accident is something that happens unexpectedly.
  • A medical emergency is an event requiring immediate attention by a medical professional
    • Establish quickly the nature of the emergency
    • Seek first aid/call emergency services
    • Secure the area
    • Make the patient comfortable
deranged customers
Deranged customers
  • Deranged means disturbed. A deranged person may be aggressive (verbally) and violent. Their aggression and violence may be directed at a person(s) or/and property.
  • Always call for assistance. Do not try to manage the situation alone, even if you know the person.
  • Evacuation of others may be necessary.
power failure
Power failure
  • Power failure may result from:
    • Inclement weather
    • Fire/explosion
    • Fire external to the premises (eg. Bush fire)
    • Accident (at power station)
    • Overload at power station (particularly in summer)
  • In most instances, the lack of power is for a short time. However, there needs to be in place a contingency plan to manage the situation (e.g. Revert to generator, use candles, cancel restaurant bookings (if phone is working)!).
what to do in the event of an emergency
What to do in the event of an emergency
  • Stop, think, act. Try to remain calm
  • Assist anyone in immediate danger if safe to do so
  • Isolate fires by closing doors
  • Raise the alarm. Attempt to extinguish fires only if safe to do so
  • Call relevant emergency service department
  • Report to designated assembly point.
what not to do in an emergency
What not to do in an emergency
  • Do not:
    • Endanger your own or someone's else’s life
    • Use lifts
    • Attempt to retrieve personal items or valuables
    • Ignore directions from emergency services personnel or fire wardens
    • Hinder emergency services personnel or fire wardens
    • Panic
    • Enter a closed room if door handle or door is warm.
emergency services
Emergency services
  • Police
  • Fire brigade
  • Ambulance

000 is the number to call

what is insurance
What is insurance?
  • Insurance is a way of protecting the interests of a business if anything goes wrong, such as:
    • Fire
    • Theft
    • Injury
    • Property damage
what insurance should organisations hold
What insurance should organisations hold?
  • Liability insurance
  • Property insurance
  • Fire insurance
  • Loss of profits
  • Workers compensation
what is workers compensation
What is workers compensation?
  • Workers compensation is a compulsory insurance scheme designed to protect the financial security of the employer in the event an employee sustains an injury.
  • After an injury, an employee may be:
    • Financially compensated
    • Rehabilitated
    • A combination of both
organisation s ohs participation
Organisation’s OHS participation
  • There are a number of opportunities to participate in workplace OHS committees.
  • The nature of the business, the business structure, the number of employees and the legislative requirements in each state and territory, dictates requirements for establishing/maintaining OHS committees, representatives and DWG’s.
workplace ohs representative
Workplace OHS representative
  • This role is carried out by a staff member (in addition to their usual duties).
  • May be elected by colleagues or appointed by employer.
  • Appointment is usually for a specified term.
  • Has the power to inspect the workplace, accompany inspectors, access employers OHS information.
  • Responds to and reports on OHS issues raised by staff.
  • May have the power to recommend and approve OHS training, issue or revoke Ins, direct that dangerous work be stopped, investigate OHS breaches, accidents and near misses, confirm an employees right to refuse to undertake work considered unsafe.
health and safety committees
Health and safety committees
  • Does not replace the OHS representative.
  • May have a similar structure to a DWG or be comprised of management and other key personnel (such as someone from an industry body).
  • Works in a consultative manner to help the organisation meet its OHS legal obligations – assist the development and implementation of OHS measures, review and make recommendations about the measures, facilitate cooperation between employer and employees, contribute to the design of OHS policy and procedure.
designated work groups
Designated work groups
  • A group made up of management and representatives for each department or section within an organisation, representing the collective interests of all employees.
  • Their role is similar to that of an OHS representative.
inspecting the workplace
Inspecting the workplace
  • Employees are usually best placed to determine the safety or otherwise of the work area. As part of the daily routine:
    • Check the work place is free of hazards
    • Participate in scheduled hazard identification activities
    • Report hazards
    • Report breaches

Remember, OHS is not someone else's responsibility!