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Chapter 4. Chad Stessman. Half-life. Radioactivity is a random process Half life is time it take half of the atoms of a sample to decay. Half-lives. Tritium- 3 H- half life of 12.3 years 238 U has a half life of 3.8 billion years

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Chad Stessman

half life
  • Radioactivity is a random process
  • Half life is time it take half of the atoms of a sample to decay
half lives
  • Tritium-3H- half life of 12.3 years
  • 238U has a half life of 3.8 billion years
  • Amount remaining after a certain number of half-lives is 1/2n. Where n= number of half lives
radioisotope dating
Radioisotope dating
  • Radioactive decay can be used to determine the age of a sample.
carbon 14 dating
Carbon-14 dating
  • 14C is an isotope of carbon.
  • Formed by bombardment of nitrogen in the atmosphere with cosmic rays, neutrons
14C incorporates into living creatures through the carbon cycle
  • When plant or animal dies, it is no longer incorporating 14C
14C half life is 5730 years
  • After about 10 half-lives or 50,000 years too little 14C to be effective.
  • 14C formation not always constant, need to find references
tritium dating
Tritium Dating
  • 3H has a half-life of 12.3 years
  • Used to determine age of brandy and wine samples 10-100 years old
other isotopes used in dating
Other isotopes used in dating
  • Potassium-40 1.3x109 years
  • Rhenium-187 4.3x1010 years
  • Uranium-238 4.5x109 years
artificial transmutation
Artificial Transmutation
  • Middle ages alchemists tried to accomplish transmutation
  • Nuclear reactions can change atoms
uses of radioisotopes
Uses of Radioisotopes
  • Around 3000 radioactive isotopes can be produced from stable isotopes.
  • Used in physical, chemical or biological systems.
  • Used to look for leaks, follow reactions, get images of biological processes.
nuclear medicine
Nuclear Medicine
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Diagnostic Uses
radiation therapy
Radiation Therapy
  • Use radiation to destroy rapidly growing cancer cells.
  • Aim radiation at cancer cells
diagnostic uses of radiation
Diagnostic Uses of Radiation
  • Radioisotopes are use to image or diagnose problems with the body functioning.
  • Technium-99m-gives up a gamma ray to become more stable

99mTc 99Tc + gamma