CHAPTER 4 Ancient India
Vocabulary 1. subcontinent 2. monsoons 3. citadel 4. Vedas 5. rajas 6. varnas 7. castes 8. Hinduism 9. reincarnation 10. karma
Vocabulary 11. moksha 12. dharma 13. yoga 14. Jainsim 15. ahimsa 16. Buddhism 17. Buddha 18. Four Noble Truths 19. Eightfold Path 20. nirvana
Vocabulary 21. Middle Way 22. loess 23. oracle bones 24. Mandate from heaven 25. dynastic cycle 26. Confucianism 27. Daoism
Questions 1. How did monsoons affect life in the Indus valley? 2. What development occurred as the Indus civilization came about? 3. What crafts were created and traded by the Indus Valley civilization? 4.How did castes affect life during the Vedic period? 5. Describe Brahman. Why can’t people understand Brahman?
Questions 6. Describe what Hindus believe happens to the atman after death. 7. What were the names of the people in the Ramayana who are considered a model for Hindu couples. What makes them the ideal couple? 8. Name several epic Hindu poems and explain how the epic poems different from the Vedas? 9. Why did Jains break away from Hinduism? 10. Where and when did Buddhism start? 11. Why did Buddha believe that living according to the Eightfold Path was important?
Questions 12. Name three main Buddhist traditions. 13. By what two means did Buddhism spread throughout India and into the East and Southeast Asia? 14. Name the two river valleys where the first Chinese civilizations developed. What geographic features helped the development of civilizations in China? 15. How were oracle bones related to ancestor worship in Shang China? 16. What technological developments were made during the Zhou dynasty? How did each benefit society? 17. What does Confucianism have in common with the religion practiced during the Shang dynasty?
SECTION ONE OBJECTIVES -Learn about India’s geographic settings -Find out about life in an ancient city of the Indus River Valley -Examine the rise of a new culture in the Indus and Ganges River Valleys
India’s geographic setting • Subcontinent-a large landmass that juts out from a continent • Stretches out from the Himalayas and juts out from Asia into the Indian Ocean • Historians refer to the entire subcontinent as India, although today it is divided into several countries, including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
India’s geographic setting • The land of India is separated from the rest of the world by a great wall. • This wall stretches along India’s northern border and stretches 1,500 miles long and nearly 5 miles high. • It is a wall of snow capped peaks and icy glaciers called the Himalayan mountains, the highest mountain range in the world.
A CLIMATE OF MONSOONS • India’s climate is dominated by monsoons (strong winds that blow across the region at certain times of the year).
A CLIMATE OF MONSOONS • From October to May, the winter monsoon blows from the northeast, spreading dry air across the country. • In the middle of June, the wind blows from the Indian Ocean, picking up moisture from the ocean. • It carries rains that drench the plains and river valleys daily.
A CLIMATE OF MONSOONS • The people of India depend on summer monsoons to provide life-giving rain. • If the monsoon is late or weak, crops die, causing famine. • If it brings too much rain, overflowing rivers may cause deadly floods.
BARRIERS AND PATHWAYS • The mountains that separate India from other lands, they do have openings. • These openings have served as highways for migration and invasion. • The earliest people of northern India probably entered the Indus River Valley through the pathways of the Himalayas.
How do winter monsoons differ from summer monsoons? • Look on pg. 108 at the “Stone Seals” • How do these seals compare to the ways that present-day merchant identify their goods?
Life in the Indus River Valley • Because of the rich soil in the Indus River Valley, there was a surplus of food, creating a population boom. • Villages turned into cities, and around 2500-1500 B.C., two well-planned cities flourished in the valley-Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
Mohenjo-Daro To help protect the city from floods, it was built above ground level. The city’s highest point served as a citadel-or fortress. Homes and workshops make up one side of the city while public buildings make up the other. Streets separated these regular blocks of homes and buildings.
MOHENJO-DAR0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdGbamPgf8o
MOHENJO-DARO • The citadel was built on a high mound of earth. It probably protected the city’s most important buildings, including a storehouse for grain and a bath house.
MOHENJO-DARO • Advanced for its time, Mohenjo-Daro had a drainage system. • Clay pipes ran under brick streets and carried waste from homes and public buildings away from the city. • Outside the city, canals ran along the Indus River, which often flooded. • The canals helped control flooding by catching overflow from the river. • The water was then directed where it was most needed.
LIFE IN MOHENJO-DARO • Merchants and artisans lined the streets. • Traders came from as far away as Mesopotamia to buy and sell goods. • Citizens of the city lived in homes that opened onto courtyards. • Children played with toys and pets. • Adults enjoyed games and music. • Artisans fashioned jewelry and bright cotton clothing for the people to wear.
ECONOMY These weights were found in recent excavations at Harappa and may have been used for controlling trade and possibly for collecting taxes.
BURIAL Burial of woman and infant, Harappa. This burial was disturbed in antiquity, possibly by ancient Harappan grave robbers. Besides the fact that the body is flipped and the pottery disturbed, the left arm of the woman is broken and shell bangles that would normally be found on the left arm are missing. The infant was buried in a small pit beneath the legs of the mother.
LIFE IN MOHENJO-DARO • The language of the people is still a mystery. • There are symbols on their seals, but experts have yet to figure out their meaning. • The form of government and organized religion are also unknown. • However, there is evidence that the people had a number of gods.
A MYSTERIOUS DECLINE • Around 2000 B.C., Indus valley farmers began to abandon their land. • Here are possible reasons why: • The climate changed, making the fertile soil desert-like. • Great earthquakes may have caused floods that destroyed the canals. • Without enough food, people began to leave the cities of the Indus Valley.
A MYSTERIOUS DECLINE • Between 2000 and 1500 B.C., newcomers from the north entered the valley. • They eventually gained power throughout the region and a new culture arose.
A NEW CULTURE ARISES • This new culture called themselves Aryans, which meant “nobles” or “highborn” in their language. • They migrated from Central Asia, and for several centuries thousands of nomadic herders swept into India.
A NEW CULTURE ARISES • The Aryans were known for their horse drawn chariots, helping them overpower any enemy. • Local people began to adopt the Aryan language. • Marriages between the members of this old and new group created a mixed population.
ARYAN CULTURE SPREADS • This new culture developed in the north Indus Valley and gradually spread to the Ganges valley in the east, where people also adopted the Aryan language. • By 800 B.C., people used iron to make tools and weapons. • With iron axes, these people cleared areas of thick rainforests to built farms, villages, and cities.
ARYAN LIFE • What we know of Aryan life comes from religious books called Vedas, meaning “knowledge”. • We know that the earliest Aryans were herders and warriors who lived in temporary villages.
ARYAN LIFE • Aryan society was organized around three main classes, with a fourth gradually making its way into society: • First-Aryan Priests, Brahmans, performed religious services and composed hymn and prayers • Second- Warriors and nobles • Third- Artisans and Merchants • Fourth- Farm workers, laborers, and servants
Belief Systems: India Outcastes – Untouchables – “Dalits” • Too low to be in the caste system • Considered “impure” from birth • Perform jobs that are traditionally considered “unclean” - scavengers - clean toilets and sewers - handle dead bodies - many Dalit girls forced into prostitution
THE SOCIAL ORDER • By 500 B.C., there was a strict division of classes, which Europeans later called the caste system. • In the beginning, the caste performed special duties. • People always to stay in the caste of their parents. • People ended up doing the same work that their parents did and so on for generations. • The caste system still exists today, yet it is not as rigid.
FOCUS ON MOHENJO-DARO • Describe the citadel and the lower-city sections of Mohenjo-Daro. • What do the features of Mohenjo-Daro tell us about the people who lived there?
CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK • Section 1 Assessment pg. 111 • Target Reading Skill • Comprehension and Critical Thinking
CHAPTER 4, SECTION 2 • Objectives • Find out about the beginning of Hinduism • Learn about the teachings of Hinduism. • Examine the practice of Hinduism.