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What is a Bureaucracy?. A method for organizing large groups. Loyola’s Bureaucracy. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy. Internal Division of Labor specialized by function. Employees are recruited and promoted based on expertise (usually). Hierarchy Standard Operating Procedures.

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what is a bureaucracy
What is a Bureaucracy?
  • A method for organizing large groups
characteristics of a bureaucracy
Characteristics of a Bureaucracy
  • Internal Division of Labor specialized by function.
  • Employees are recruited and promoted based on expertise (usually).
  • Hierarchy
  • Standard Operating Procedures.
  • Effective, Efficient execution of tasks to reach goals.
structure the cabinet
Structure…The Cabinet

15 departments

Each established by Congress for a specific task

Headed by a Secretary

Appointed by the President

Approved by the Senate

Each Dept is sub-divided

Functions are greatly impacted by the President

cabinet departments
  • Secretary of State
  • Secretary of the Treasury
  • Secretary of Defense
  • Attorney General
  • Secretary of the Interior
  • Secretary of Agriculture
  • Secretary of Commerce
  • Secretary of Labor
  • Secretary of Health and Human Services
  • Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
  • Secretary of Transportation
  • Secretary of Energy
  • Secretary of Education
  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs
  • Secretary of Homeland Security
  • Created by:
    • Congress
  • Secretaries Approved by:
    • Senate
what the bureaucracy does
What the Bureaucracy Does
  • Congress and Pres.
  • Pass a Law
  • Bureaucracy
  • Implement/Enforce


department of the interior
Department of the Interior


  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • National Parks Service
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement
independent agencies regulatory agencies government corporations
  • Report Directly to the President
  • Narrower area of Responsibility than Cabinet Departments.
  • What is the difference between these three?
regulatory agencies
  • Created by Congress for a particular area of focus.
  • Regulate particular activity or interest
  • Free of political pressure
    • Securities and Exchange Commission
    • Federal Elections Commission


  • Like a cabinet dept. but have a more specific focus
  • Practical and symbolic reasons
  • Less indebted to President
  • NASA
  • CIA
  • EPA
government corporations
  • Charge for services.
  • Also receive govt. funds.
    • Post Office
    • Amtrak
    • Why do these exist?
epa video
    • 9:15 minute mark
  • http://www.learner.org/courses/democracyinamerica/dia_8/dia_8_video.html
  • Why was the EPA created?
  • What role does leadership play in creating an effective bureaucracy?
  • Can any bureaucracy operate effectively without clear political guidance as to what goals it should pursue? 
growth of the bureaucracy
Growth of the Bureaucracy
  • 1st Congress: 1789
    • Created State, War, Treasury, Justice Departments.
  • 1861-1900:
    • Civil War
    • Industrial Revolution
      • Department of Agriculture
      • Dept. of Labor
      • Dept. of Commerce
  • Depression and WWII
    • Change in public attitude (role of Govt)
      • Social Programs
    • WWII Use of Federal Taxes: Expand Govt.
      • Amendment 16: Income Tax (1913)
      • Military Preparedness (Continues in Cold War)
  • 1960s
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • LBJ: Great Society (“War on Poverty”)
is the bureaucracy too big
Is the Bureaucracy too big?
  • Department of Agriculture: NBC Learn Video
u s military
U. S. Military
  • 543,000 Army
  • 335,000 Navy
  • 158,000 Marines
  • 330,000 Air Force
  • 810,000 Reserves
who are bureaucrats hiring
Who are Bureaucrats?Hiring
  • 1800s
    • Spoils System (Patronage)
  • 1883: Pendleton Act
    • Introduce merit based system
  • Today:
    • 90% are hired by the civil service system
    • Many “indirectly employed” through sub-contracting.
      • i.e., military contractors
what the bureaucracy does1
What the Bureaucracy Does
  • Congress and Pres.
  • Pass a Law
  • Bureaucracy
  • Implement/Enforce


congress delegates authority bureaucratic autonomy
Congress Delegates Authority/ Bureaucratic Autonomy
  • Administrative discretion:
    • in creating policies, regulations, & disbursing grants.
  • Administrative adjudication:
    • Settle disputes between two parties.
the bank regulators book club
“The Bank Regulators’ Book Club”
  • What was the law passed by Congress?
  • Which agency was responsible for implementing?
  • Provide MULTIPLE SPECIFIC examples of how the bureaucrats exercise ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION.
  • http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2011/02/04/133476579/the-bank-regulators-book-club
federal deposit insurance corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
  • Formed in 1933
  • Why?
  • Independent Agency
  • Regulates Banks and Deposits
  • Insure up to $250,000
  • “Full Faith and Credit”
career bureaucrats v political appointments
Career Bureaucrats v. Political Appointments
  • Agency Point of View
    • Career with one Agency
    • Continuity
    • Long term stability
    • Status Quo
    • “Protect Turf”
  • President’s Agenda
    • Temporary political agenda
    • Short term goals
    • “pet” issues/projects
    • Attempt to enact change
halliburton and the iron triangle
Halliburton and the Iron Triangle
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=deGPK54tBW4
accountability checks on the bureaucracy
Accountability: Checks on the Bureaucracy
  • Congressional Control
    • Appropriate money
    • Shape laws; create regulations
    • Create Departments/Agencies
    • Investigate agencies (hearings)
    • Approve of secretaries
accountability checks on the bureaucracy1
Accountability: Checks on the Bureaucracy
  • Presidential Control
    • Appointments
    • Reorganize (with Congress)
    • Budget Cuts (with Congress)
    • Executive Orders
    • Tells them how to implement
  • Judicial Control
    • Injunctions
      • (prevent an agency from acting until court officially rules on a case).
    • Threat of Litigation
    • Declare actions unconstitutional
department of justice
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms
  • Drug Enforcement Administration
  • Federal Bureau of Prisons
department of homeland security
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
  • U.S. Coast Guard
  • U.S. Secret Service
  • Customs and Border Protection
department of the treasury
  • Bureau of Engraving and Printing
  • Internal Revenue Service
  • U.S. Mint