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The British Empire

The British Empire

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The British Empire

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  1. The British Empire Chapter 25 (pp. 720 – 734)

  2. introduction • During the 18th and 19th centuries, the British built an empire that would grow to eventually encompass 1/3 of the world’s landmass • At the same time, Spanish and Portuguese power declined • British sought raw materials and consumer markets for finished goods • Included territories in: • South Asia (India) • Southeast Asia • Oceania (New Zealand & Australia) • Africa

  3. India Under British Rule • In the late 1600s, Mughal power in India began a rapid decline • Hindu subjects challenged the Mughals • Formed the Maratha Confederation • Fought a 27 year war to end Muslim rule in India

  4. India Under British Rule • During the Maratha Empire, the British established a large trade presence • British East India Company • Sepoys: Indian soldiers hired to protect British trade • British took over major cities of Calcutta, Madras & Bombay

  5. India Under British Rule • In 1857, for a variety of social and religious reasons, the sepoys rebelled against British forces • Indian Revolt of 1857 • Led to dissolution of East India Company • India was now directly governed by the British Crown • British Raj (1858 – 1947)

  6. The British Raj • 1858, Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India • Strengthened control over colonly • “Westernization, Anglicization, and modernization” • Proclaimed equality under law and “technically” allowed some forms of self government • Former Mughal princes pledged loyalty for autonomy • Indian Civil Service

  7. The British Raj • Prior to British rule India had an economically productive and agriculturally based economy • Leading exporter of cotton textiles • British introduction of cheap factory-produced textiles led to decline of India’s economy

  8. The British Raj • British rapidly built up India’s infrastructureto more productivly farm natural resources • Railroads • Canals • Telegraph lines

  9. Britain’s Eastern Empire(Africa, Asia and the Pacific)

  10. Colonies and Commerce • 1795, Dutch ceded control of Cape Colony (South Africa) to British • British established a large settler colony • Profited from port trade • British citizens displaced previous Dutch settlers • Resulted in the Great Trek

  11. Colonies and Commerce • British seized control of numerous territories in Asia • Malacca (again form the Dutch) • Singapore • Burma (Myanmar)

  12. Imperial Policies and Shipping • British sought trade rather than territory • New colonies meant to serve as ports • New clipper ships increased speed and cargo capacity of oceanic trade

  13. Australia and New Zealand • 1769 - 1778, British Captain James Cook explored New Zealand & eastern coast of Australia • Native communities succumbed to disease • Ex. Maoryi

  14. Colonization of Australia and New Zealand • At first, British used Australia as a penal colony • As more settlers arrived, British allowed self-government to avoid independence movements • Also, made colonists responsible for their own expenses • British also settled New Zealand for seal hunting and whaling