The British Empire Giulia Polonio 5^ALS 2014/2015
BEGINNING OF THE IMPERIAL ACTIVITY IN BRITAIN Britain's imperial activity has begun during the second half of the 16th century; The British Empire started when English, under the control of Queen Elisabeth I, began setting up plantations in Ireland in 1556; The lands were forcibly taken from the native Irish.
THE SIZE OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE DURING VICTORIA'S REIGN The British Empire occupied an area of 4 million square miles and more than 400 million people were ruled over by the British.
TERRITORIES OCCUPIED BY BRITISH DURING THE VICTORIAN AGE India: it came under direct rule by Britain in 1887; Australia New Zealand Seized parts of China:including Hong Kong Africa Southeast Asia
1877: QUEEN VICTORIA BECOMES EMPRESS OF INDIA Queen Victoria became Empress of India by the British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli; Victoria's desire for that title derived from jelousy of the imperial titles of some of her parets (in Germany and in Russia); Her Son Edward VIII ascended the throne, so he bacames Emperor of India; India became independent from United Kingdom in 1947.
EXPAND OF BRITAIN IN AFRICA 1882: Britain took over Egypt to protect its routes to India trough the Suez Canal. 1884: Britain occupy Sudan 1899-1902: Britain was in war in South africa against the Dutch settlers over control of gold and diamonds mines. The British won.
BRITISH IMPERIAL TRADING ROUTES Protecting its ocean trading routes was of primary importance to Britain; In the Gulf of Guinea there were several safe harbours along the route to the Cape of Good Hope; After the conquest of Hong Kong, Britain opened up a sphere of influence in the “Middle Kingdom”; The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the costs of travelling to India; British control of route became stronger after the conquest of Cyprus and Egypt, and the protectorates in Aden and British Somalia; The major evidence of British influence was the adoption of Greenwich Mean Time for fixing worl time zones.
GREENWICH MEAN TIME GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) was established in 1884 at the International Meridian Conference, when it was decided to place the Prime Meridian at Greenwich.
THE KIND OF EMPIRE AND THE IDEA OF THEIR ROLE OF COLONISERS The British were able to shape imperial and colonial policy gradually because they came into contact with different realities in different times. The British thought that some were destined to be led by others.