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Chapter 24 . Section 4: From Isolationism to War. Neutrality Acts. 1935- banned the US from providing weapons to nations at war 1936- banned loans to such nations. 1937- permitted trade with fighting nations in nonmilitary goods, as long as they paid cash & transported the cargo Cash & carry

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chapter 24

Chapter 24

Section 4: From Isolationism to War

neutrality acts
Neutrality Acts
  • 1935- banned the US from providing weapons to nations at war
  • 1936- banned loans to such nations
1937- permitted trade with fighting nations in nonmilitary goods, as long as they paid cash & transported the cargo
    • Cash & carry
  • Prevented the US from selling arms even to nations that were defending themselves from aggression
FDR later said that it encouraged aggression
    • 1938- Italy conquered Ethiopia, Japan had China, & Germany took over Austria & the Sudetenland
american involvement grows
American Involvement Grows
  • Our economy was recovering
  • Germany & Japan stepped up their aggression
    • Softened our isolationist views
  • Sept. 1939 Germany invaded Poland
    • FDR looked for ways to aid the Allies
debating the american role
Debating the American Role
  • FDR asked for a revision of the Neutrality Acts
    • Congress repealed the arms embargo & provided GB & France with the weapons they needed
Later allowed our merchant ships to transport these purchases
    • Still prevents us from lending money
  • June 1940- France fell to Germany & Hitler prepared to invade Britain
Sept. 3- sent 50 old destroyers to GB in return for permission to build bases on British territory in the western hemisphere
  • Isolationists formed the American First Committee to block further aid
Election of 1940
    • FDR & Wendell Wilkie both supported aiding GB
      • Disagreed on how much
      • Both knew that war would be hard to avoid
lend lease
  • FDR won re-election to a third term
    • Pushed for a greater involvement to the Allies
  • Plan- providing war supplies to GB without any payment in return
Authorized the President to aid nations’ whose defense he believed was vital to American security
  • By the end, the US loaned $49 billion to 40 nations
japan attacks pearl harbor
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor
  • July 1940- FDR began limiting what Japan could buy from the US
  • Sept. ended sale of scrap iron & steel- hoped to stop further expansion
FDR froze Japanese financial assets in the US & cut off all oil shipments
    • Led Japan to turn to the Dutch East Indies for supplies
final weeks of peace
Final Weeks of Peace
  • In Oct. 1941 Gen. Hideki Tojo took power in Japan who supported a war with the US
  • A year earlier we cracked the top secret Japanese code that allowed us to read intercepted diplomatic messages
Nov. 27- Leaders knew that the Japanese aircraft carriers were on the move in the Pacific
    • Fleet of 6 aircraft carriers & 20 other battleships
      • Target was Pearl Harbor- home of the US Pacific Fleet
the attack
The Attack
  • Shortly after 7a.m. on Dec. 7, 1941, an American radio operator on Oahu noticed a large blip on his radar screen
    • The officer in charge believed they were American & said to ignore them
Less than 1 hour later, 180 Japanese planes attacked
    • Half of the Pacific Fleet was anchored at Pearl
    • By 9:45 the attack was over
      • 2,400 Americans were killed & 1,200 wounded
200 warships were damaged or destroyed
    • 18 sunk or heavily damaged
    • 8 of the 9 battleships
  • Japan lost 29 planes
us declares war
US Declares War
  • “A date which will live in infamy…”
  • Dec. 8- FDR asked for a declaration of war on Japan
    • Only one member voted against
  • Dec. 11- Germany & Italy declared war on the US