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Networking and Internetworking. Jenhui Chen Assistant Professor http://www.csie.cgu.edu.tw/jhchen. Networking issues for DS. Performance Latency Data transfer rate Scalability Reliability Security Firewall Mobility Quality of service Multicasting. Types of Network (1/2).

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Networking and internetworking

Networking and Internetworking

Jenhui Chen

Assistant Professor

http://www.csie.cgu.edu.tw/jhchen


Networking issues for ds
Networking issues for DS

  • Performance

    • Latency

    • Data transfer rate

  • Scalability

  • Reliability

  • Security

    • Firewall

  • Mobility

  • Quality of service

  • Multicasting


Types of network 1 2
Types of Network (1/2)

  • Local Area Networks (LANs)

  • Wide Area Networks (WANs)

  • Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)

  • Wireless Networks

  • Internetworks

  • Network Comparisons

    • See the following table


Types of network 2 2
Types of Network (2/2)

Range

Bandwidth (Mbps)

Latency (ms)

LAN

1-2 kms

10-1000

1-10

WAN

worldwide

0.010-600

100-500

MAN

2-50 kms

1-150

10

Wireless LAN

0.15-1.5 km

2-11

5-20

Wireless WAN

worldwide

0.010-2

100-500

Internet

worldwide

0.010-2

100-500


Network principles
Network Principles

  • Packet Transmission

  • Data Streaming

  • Switching Schemes

    • Broadcast

      • Ethernet, wireless networks

    • Circuit Switching

    • Packet Switching

      • Store-and-forward network

    • Frame Relay

      • Brings some of the advantages of circuit switching to packet-switching networks

  • Protocols


Conceptual layering of protocol software
Conceptual layering of protocol software

Message received

Message sent

Layer n

Layer 2

Layer 1

Communication

Sender

Recipient

medium




Osi protocol summary

Layer (OSI) model

Description

Examples

Application

Protocols that are designed to meet the communication requirements of

FTP

HTTP,

,

SMTP,

specific applications, often defining the interface to a service.

CORBA IIOP

Presentation

Protocols at this level transmit data in a network representation that is

Secure Sockets

independent of the representations used in individual computers, which may

(

SSL),CORBA Data

differ. Encryption is also performed in this layer, if required.

Rep.

Session

At this level reliability and adaptation are performed, such as detection of

failures and automatic recovery.

Transport

This is the lowest level at which messages (rather than packets) are handled.

TCP,

UDP

Messages are addressed to communication ports attached to processes,

Protocols in this layer may be connection-oriented or connectionless.

Network

Transfers data packets between computers in a specific network. In a WAN

IP,

ATM virtual

or an internetwork this involves the generation of a route passing through

circuits

routers. In a single LAN no routing is required.

Data link

Responsible for transmission of packets between nodes that are directly

Ethernet MAC,

connected by a physical link. In a WAN transmission is between pairs of

ATM cell transfer,

routers or between routers and hosts. In a LAN it is between any pair of hosts.

PPP

Physical

The circuits and hardware that drive the network. It transmits sequences of

Ethernet base- band

binary data by analogue signalling, using amplitude or frequency modulation

signalling,

ISDN

of electrical signals (on cable circuits), light signals (on fibre optic circuits)

or other electromagnetic signals (on radio and microwave circuits).

OSI protocol summary


Internetwork layers
Internetwork layers (OSI) model


Routing in a wide area network

A (OSI) model

1

B

2

Hosts

Links

4

3

or local

C

networks

5

D

6

E

Routers

Routing in a wide area network


Routing tables for the network in figure 3 7

Routings from A (OSI) model

Routings from B

Routings from C

To

Link

Cost

To

Link

Cost

To

Link

Cost

A

local

0

A

1

1

A

2

2

B

1

1

B

local

0

B

2

1

C

1

2

C

2

1

C

local

0

D

3

1

D

1

2

D

5

2

E

1

2

E

4

1

E

5

1

Routings from D

Routings from E

To

Link

Cost

To

Link

Cost

A

3

1

A

4

2

B

3

2

B

4

1

C

6

2

C

5

1

D

local

0

D

6

1

E

6

1

E

local

0

Routing tables for the network in Figure 3.7


Pseudo code for rip routing algorithm
Pseudo-code for RIP routing algorithm (OSI) model

  • Send: Each t seconds or when Tl changes, send Tl on each non-faulty outgoing link.

  • Receive: Whenever a routing table Tr is received on link n:

    • for all rows Rr in Tr {

      • if (Rr.link | n) {

        • Rr.cost = Rr.cost + 1;

        • Rr.link = n;

        • if (Rr.destination is not in Tl) add Rr to Tl;

        • // add new destination to Tl

        • else for all rows Rl in Tl {

          • if (Rr.destination = Rl.destination and

          • (Rr.cost < Rl.cost or Rl.link = n)) Rl = Rr;

          • //Rr.cost < Rl.cost : remote node has better route

          • // Rl.link = n : remote node is more authoritative

        • }

      • }

    • }


Internetworking
Internetworking (OSI) model

  • Routers

  • Bridges

  • Hubs

  • Switchs

    • Switches perform a similar function to routers, but for local networks (normally Ethernet) only.

  • Tunnelling


Simplified view of the qmw computer science network

router/ (OSI) model

138.37.95.240/29

138.37.95.241

Campus

firewall

subnet

router

hammer

Staff subnet

Student subnet

138.37.88.251

138.37.94.251

138.37.88

138.37.94

compute

file server/

Eswitch

Eswitch

server

gateway

bruno

138.37.88.249

custard

printers

138.37.94.246

dialup

server

%

henry

138.37.88.230

other

servers

file

server

hotpoint

138.37.88.162

web

server

copper

138.37.88.248

hub

hub

desktop computers

desktop computers

138.37.88.xx

138.37.94.xx

sickle

Campus

138.37.95.248/29

100 Mbps Ethernet

router/

router

subnet

138.37.95.249

firewall

1000 Mbps Ethernet

Eswitch: Ethernet switch

Simplified view of the QMW Computer Science network


Tunnelling for ipv6 migration

IPv6 encapsulated in IPv4 packets (OSI) model

IPv4 network

IPv6

IPv6

A

B

Encapsulators

Tunnelling for IPv6 migration


Tcp ip layers

Message (OSI) model

Layers

Application

Messages (UDP) or Streams (TCP)

Transport

UDP or TCP packets

Internet

IP datagrams

Network interface

Network-specific frames

Underlying network

TCP/IP layers


Encapsulation in a message transmitted via tcp over an ethernet

Application message (OSI) model

port

TCP header

TCP

IP header

Ethernet header

IP

Ethernet frame

Encapsulation in a message transmitted via TCP over an Ethernet





Ip packet layout
IP packet layout (OSI) model


Ipv6 header layout
IPv6 header layout (OSI) model


Ipv6 embodies
IPv6 embodies (OSI) model

  • Address space: 128 bits (16 bytes)

  • Routing speed

  • Real-time and other special services

  • Future evolution

  • Multicast and anycast

  • Security


The mobile ip routing mechanism
The Mobile IP routing mechanism (OSI) model

Sender

Subsequent IP packets

Mobile host MH

tunnelled to FA

Address of FA

returned to sender

First IP packet

addressed to MH

Internet

Foreign agent FA

Home

First IP packet

agent

tunnelled to FA


Tcp and udp
TCP and UDP (OSI) model

  • Use of ports

  • UDP features

  • TCP features

    • Sequencing

    • Flow control

    • Retransmission

    • Buffering


Firewall
Firewall (OSI) model

  • Service control

  • Behavior control



Ieee 802 network standards

IEEE No. (OSI) model

Title

Reference

802.3

CSMA/CD Networks (Ethernet)

[IEEE 1985a]

802.4

Token Bus Networks

[IEEE 1985b]

802.5

Token Ring Networks

[IEEE 1985c]

802.6

Metropolitan Area Networks

[IEEE 1994]

802.11

Wireless Local Area Networks

[IEEE 1999]

IEEE 802 network standards



Atm protocol layers
ATM protocol layers (OSI) model


Atm cell layout
ATM cell layout (OSI) model