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Networking and Internetworking Devices. Repeaters Bridges Routers Gateways Routing Algorithms. Outline. Routing Algorithms Dykstra Bellman Ford Routing In the Internet DNS. Router and the OSI Model. Routers in an Internet. Distance Vector Routing. Knowledge about the entire network

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Networking and Internetworking Devices


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Networking and Internetworking Devices • Repeaters • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • Routing Algorithms

    2. Outline • Routing Algorithms • Dykstra • Bellman Ford • Routing In the Internet • DNS

    3. Router and the OSI Model

    4. Routers in an Internet

    5. Distance Vector Routing • Knowledge about the entire network • Routing only to neighbors • Information Sharing with neighbors

    6. Link State Routing • Knowledge of neighborhood • Shares with all routers – flooding • Information sharing when change

    7. Dijkstra Algorithm • Find the shortest paths from a given source node to all other nodes by developing paths of increasing path length • Do this until paths to all nodes are found • From ROOT • Do until destination is reached. • Take shortest arc to next node • Add this arc to path • ROOT = this->node • Breadth Search from root • Select lowest cost • Add node and arc

    8. Bellman-Ford • Do until a path exists to each node • Develop paths in increasing depth • While n < maxLength or until allNodesFound • Find all paths of length n • n++

    9. Distance Vector Routing Protocol • RIP (Routing Information Protocol) • Each router uses broadcasting to send its entire information to its neighbors every 30 seconds. • The best path is based on the least number of hops. • It’s suitable for small networks • RIP is used by IPX/SPX and TCP/IP.

    10. Distance Vector Routing Table

    11. Routing Algorithms • Link state routing • If there is a change, each router sends its information about its neighbors to every other router in the network using flooding. • A router, periodically sends a message to its neighbors, the response indicates that the device is alive and functioning. • No response, change has occurred.

    12. Link State Routing Protocol • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) • More efficient than RIP • Only the changes are sent • each router sends its information about its neighbors to every other router in the network using flooding. • A router, periodically sends a message to its neighbors, the response indicates that the device is alive and functioning. • No response, change has occurred.

    13. Routing in the Internet • Physical Address Determination • Must know physical address to route • arp • Selection of inter-network gateways • tracert • Symbolic and Numeric Addresses • nslookup

    14. Physical Address Determination • ARP • The arp program displays and modifies ip to mac address translation • a -> display all entries in table • d -> delete a host entry Login to sheba type “arp sheba” type “arp –a”

    15. tracert • Login to sheba • Type “tracert www.memphis.com” • This shows the route that a packet takes to communicate with U of Memphis webserver

    16. DNS - nslookup • nslookup www.cbu.edu • What is displayed? • CNAME

    17. What ports • Type “more /etc/services” • This displays the services on sheba and the ports they operate on.