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Networking and Internetworking Devices. Repeaters Bridges Routers Gateways Routing Algorithms. Homework. p.641 prob 1-18. Connecting Devices and the OSI Model. Repeater and OSI Model. A Repeater. Function of a Repeater. Bridge and the OSI Model. Bridges.

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Networking and Internetworking Devices


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Networking and Internetworking Devices • Repeaters • Bridges • Routers • Gateways • Routing Algorithms

    2. Homework • p.641 prob 1-18

    3. Connecting Devices and the OSI Model

    4. Repeater and OSI Model

    5. A Repeater

    6. Function of a Repeater

    7. Bridge and the OSI Model

    8. Bridges • Reduces Collision Domain / Congestion • Simple • Addresses manually entered • Multiport • Transparent • Builds routing table itself • Updates table based on source addresses

    9. A Bridge

    10. Function of a Bridge

    11. Router and the OSI Model

    12. Routers in an internet

    13. Routing Concepts • Least cost routing • Hop count • Link-quality • Speed, congestion, link medium

    14. Routing concepts Non-adaptive Adaptive Packet Lifetime

    15. Gateway and the OSI Model

    16. A Gateway

    17. Gateway • Each Side Unaware of The OTHER • Protocol Converter • SNA -> TCP/IP • AppleTalk -> TCP/IP • Novell Netware -> TCP/IP

    18. Other Devices • Multi-Protocol Routers • IPX, TCP/IP • Brouter • Router if known protocol • Bridge otherwise

    19. Switches • Function at Level 2 • Bridging Capability • Store and Forward • Telex • Cut-Through • Immediate Transfer

    20. Routing Switches • Function as routers • Faster than traditional routers • USE Level 3 – Network Addresses

    21. Distance Vector Routing • Knowledge about the entire network • Routing only to neighbors • Information Sharing with neighbors

    22. Link State Routing • Knowledge of neighborhood • Shares with all routers – flooding • Information sharing when change

    23. Dijkstra Algorithm • Breadth Search from root • Select lowest cost • Add node and arc

    24. Routing Classifications • Adaptive routing (dynamic) • Non-adaptive routing (fixed or static)

    25. Dynamic Routing Algorithms • Distance Vector Routing • Link state routing

    26. Routing Algorithms • Distance Vector Routing • Each link is assigned a weight • Distance to the destination is the sum of the weights along the path to the destination

    27. Routing Algorithms • Distance Vector Routing • Each router sends its entire information about the entire network to its neighbors. • Neighbors are other routers with direct link to it. • Information are shared periodically, even if nothing has changed. • Eventually, every router will learn about other routers on the network. • Slow convergence (it takes longer for all routers to receive all information)

    28. Distance Vector Routing Protocol • RIP (Routing Information Protocol) • Each router uses broadcasting to send its entire information to its neighbors every 30 seconds. • The best path is based on the least number of hops. • It’s suitable for small networks • RIP is used by IPX/SPX and TCP/IP.

    29. Distance Vector Routing Table

    30. Routing Algorithms • Link state routing • If there is a change, each router sends its information about its neighbors to every other router in the network using flooding. • A router, periodically sends a message to its neighbors, the response indicates that the device is alive and functioning. • No response, change has occurred.

    31. Link State Routing Protocol • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) • More efficient than RIP • Only the changes are sent • each router sends its information about its neighbors to every other router in the network using flooding. • A router, periodically sends a message to its neighbors, the response indicates that the device is alive and functioning. • No response, change has occurred.

    32. Concept of Link State Routing

    33. Costs in Link State Routing

    34. Link State Packet

    35. Flooding of A’s LSP

    36. Flooding of B’s LSP

    37. Link State Database

    38. Finding the Shortest Path • Select a node (A) and make it permanent • Examine each of the adjacent nodes to A. • Relabel each one with the distance to A. • Make the one with the smallest label permanent. (14) • This becomes the new working node.

    39. Costs in Dijkstra Algorithm

    40. Shortest Path Calculation

    41. Shortest Path Calculation

    42. Shortest Path Calculation

    43. Shortest Path Calculation

    44. Shortest Path Calculation

    45. Shortest Path Calculation

    46. Shortest Path Calculation

    47. Shortest Path Calculation

    48. Shortest Path Calculation

    49. Shortest Path Calculation