Cotton Gin pgs. 200-201 • The cotton gin was invented in 1793 • The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney. The cotton gin made more production for cotton. Since more cotton was being sold, Southern farmers grew short-staple cotton for profit. They had long-staple cotton which had only grew in interior regions. By 1820, this plantation system of farming had transformed Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama into a booming Cotton Kingdom. In this way, the cotton gin accelerated the expansion of slavery.
Interchangeable Partspg. 198 • Interchangeable Parts were used/ invented in the 19th century • Interchangeable parts were started by Eli Whitney. These interchangeable parts were standardized parts that can be used in place of another piece of machinery. Before Eli Whitney’s idea of interchangeable parts, vehicles and such were all different. Each part was different from another part. If one of your parts broke down, you would have to pay for a new mechanism and wait a lot. Now imagine that there were interchangeable parts. Now, each weapon would have the same parts as the same one, so they could make more of these things and space parts, so they would have things ready. This made a lot of things easier to get.
Steamboatpg. 256 • The Steamboat was invented in 1807 • The first Steamboat was invented/used by Robert Fulton who was a regular civilian of Pennsylvania. His steamboat was named the Clermont which made a 150-mile trip up the Hudson River from New York to Albany in 32 hours (which was very fast during this time period). By 1830, 200 steamboats traveled the nation’s western rivers that flowed into the Mississippi and slashed freight rates as well as voyage times.
Erie Canalpg. 258 • The Erie was first used in 1817 • The Erie Canal was the nation’s first major canal, and it was used heavily. They used it for not only transportation, but also for trading with other trading ports. With the telegraph and steamboat invented, the Erie Canal was another source that would later evolve the United States through communication, connection and transportation.
Telegraphpg. 256 • The Telegraph was invented in 1837 • The telegraph was created by Samuel F.B. Morse. The telegraph was a device for the electrical transmission of coded messages over wires. This was the first form of communication quickly over vast distances. This would later evolve to cellphones and telephones. By 1835, 23,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed the country.
Sewing Machinepg. 255 and 256 • The Sewing Machine was invented in 1846 • The Sewing Machine was invented and started by Elias Howe who was an inventor and entrepreneur. The sewing machine was mostly used in shoe factories and they also used it for sewing garments together. This increased the production of clothing so working and wealthy people were able to afford more clothes from the store and wear them.
Steel Plowpg. 259 • The steel plow was invented in 1837 • The steel plow was invented by John Deere who was a blacksmith. The steel plow had enabled farmers to replace their oxen with horses. It had a huge impact in history and today’s life. It cuts through hard dirt so it would be much easier to plant seeds. Became really popular and sold over 13,000 each year!
Vulcanized Rubberpg. 256 • Vulcanized Rubber was first invented in 1839 • The Vulcanized Rubber was invented by Charles Goodyear who was an inventor and entrepreneur. Unlike other rubbers, in the cold this product didn’t freeze in the cold or melt in the heat. Although people could and did use Vulcanized Rubber to protect their boots and shoes from the snow, they used this product indispensability for automobile tires.
Railroadpg. 282 and 283 • The first Railroad was invented between 1840-1860 • The Railroad was used first by the people of the U.S., mostly in the south. It was the best way of transportation during its time period. It was used to send settlers (mostly farmers and miners) to many different planting and gold mine areas; it was used for the transportation of goods to different trading ports, and it was used for sending slaves to whatever plantation they were assigned.
Mechanical Reaperpg. 259 • The Mechanical Reaper was invented in 1851 • The Mechanical Reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick. This permitted one farmer to do the work of five hired hands. It was used to cut down smaller crops like wheat. The reaper was packed in parts and shipped to the farmer, along with a handbook of directions for assembling and operating the machine.