Hawaiian Island Geology. Over 100 volcanoes in a volcanic island arc system. Meiji (3000 m deep). Big Island. Hawaiian Islands. Niihau. Kauai. Oahu. Molokai. Lanai. Maui. Hawaii. Bathymetric Profile of Hawaiian Emperor Chain.
volcanoes in a volcanic island arc system
(3000 m deep)
J. Tuzo Wilson (1963), a Canadian geophysicist ,came up the "hotspot" theory.
volcanoes of the Hawaiian chain should get progressively older and become more eroded the farther they travel beyond the hotspot.
Moves in a northwesterly direction
Much of the Hawaiian island arc is
underwater and extends toward Midway
Other examples of hot spots include:
Cape Verde (off the coast of Senegal), Galapagos Islands (off the coast of Equator), Society Islands (French Polynesia), Tristan da Cunha (southern Atlantic), Yellowstone, Ethiopia Plateau, Lord How (near Sydney), Iceland, and many more.
Older islands erode and subside
Fringing Reef- boarders coastline closely
Barrier Reef- separated from
land by a lagoon
Atoll- coral ring with central lagoon
lagoon is a shallow area with a sandy floor, patch reefs, and patches of seagrass
Reef Flat of a Barrier Reef
(Cay or Motu)
Kure Atoll (28° 25' N - 178° 20' W)
Pearl & Hermes Atoll